Back to Journals » Drug Design, Development and Therapy » Volume 9

Empagliflozin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: evidence to date

Authors Shubrook J, Bokaie B, Adkins S

Received 19 April 2015

Accepted for publication 6 September 2015

Published 30 October 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 5793—5803


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Wei Duan

Jay H Shubrook,1 Babak Baradar Bokaie,2 Sarah E Adkins3

1Primary Care Department, Clinical Research and Diabetes Services, Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA; 2The Diabetes Institute at Ohio University, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 3Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Athens, OH, USA

Abstract: In the last decade, researchers have gained a greater understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of type 2 diabetes as a chronic and progressive disease. One of the more recent treatment targets is the kidney. The kidneys become maladaptive in diabetes by increasing the reabsorption of glucose above the normal physiologic renal threshold. This discovery has led to the development of the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2). These agents readjust the renal threshold for glucose reabsorption to a lower level and decrease glucose reabsorption, while increasing urinary glucose when the glucose is above the renal threshold and subsequently lowering plasma glucose. The mechanism of action of the SGLT2 inhibitors is insulin independent, which makes them a novel treatment of diabetes. At the time of preparation of this manuscript, there were three SGLT2 inhibitors available in the US. This manuscript focuses on empagliflozin, the newest SGLT2 inhibitor, the trials in its development, and the clinical data available to date. Further, the authors propose future applications of empagliflozin, including in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and its potential role in renoprotection.

Keywords: SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, type 2 diabetes, kidneys, type 1 diabetes, glucosuria

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]