Back to Journals » Drug Design, Development and Therapy » Volume 9

Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing phase IV study

Authors Bashaireh K, Naser Z, Al Hawadya K, Sorour S, Al-khateeb R

Received 25 January 2015

Accepted for publication 23 February 2015

Published 8 April 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 2063—2072


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Shu-Feng Zhou

Khaldoon Bashaireh,1 Ziad Naser,2 Khaled Al Hawadya,2 Sorour Sorour,2 Rami Nabeel Al-Khateeb3

1Department of Orthopedics Surgery, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Private Clinic, 3Elaf Medical Supplies Company, Amman, Jordan

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period.
Materials and methods: The study was a post-marketing phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4) in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection.
Main outcome measure(s): An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated.
Main results: The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3.36, the stiffness score was 0.42, and the physical performance score was 11.5. All side effects were local and transient, and included pain, swelling, and redness of the knee. Most side effects were treated.
Conclusion: Hyaluronan should be encouraged as an alternative or adjunct treatment to oral analgesics to reduce their required doses, and delay potential future surgical intervention.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, intra-articular injection, Crespine® Gel

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]