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Frequency of metabolic syndrome and associated factors in institutionalized elderly individuals

Authors Sales MC, Praça Oliveira L, Liberalino LCP, Cunha ATO, Sousa SES, Lemos TMAM, Lima SCVC, Costa Lima K, Sena-Evangelista KCM, Pedrosa LFC

Received 23 June 2018

Accepted for publication 24 August 2018

Published 30 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 2453—2464

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S177731

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker


Marcia Cristina Sales,1 Larissa Praça Oliveira,2 Laura Camila Pereira Liberalino,3 Aline Tuane Oliveira Cunha,2 Sara Estefani Soares Sousa,4 Telma Maria Araujo Moura Lemos,5 Severina Carla Vieira Cunha Lima,6 Kenio Costa Lima,7 Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio Sena-Evangelista,6 Lucia Fatima Campos Pedrosa6

1Postgraduate Program of Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 2School of Nutrition, Potiguar University (Laureate International Universities), Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3Department of Medicine, State University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 4Postgraduate Program of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 5Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 6Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 7Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Introduction: Population aging generally accompanies an increase in chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS). Nursing homes have provided a solution for the decreased ability of elderly individuals for self-care and familial difficulties in meeting the health care needs of elderly individuals.
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of MS and its associated factors in elderly individuals living in nursing homes.
Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 202 institutionalized elderly individuals. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program – Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors were assessed to verify their association with MS by logistic regression.
Results: The MS frequency was 29.2%. The most frequent MS components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (63.9%) and abdominal obesity (42.7%). Factors associated with MS were female sex (prevalence ratio [PR]=2.16; 95% CI, 1.04–4.49), age-adjusted institutionalization time >50% (PR=2.38, 95% CI, 1.46–3.88), and high concentrations of interleukin-6 (PR=2.01; 95% CI, 1.21–3.32) and tumor necrosis factor-α (PR=1.70; 95% CI, 1.05–2.77). Moreover, it was verified that the likelihood of having MS was 1.85-fold higher (95% CI, 1.11–3.10) in the group with a diet characterized by very high energy, very low fat, and high dietary fiber.
Conclusion: The occurrence of MS in institutionalized elderly individuals was higher in females, and individuals with longer age-adjusted institutionalization time, higher concentrations of immunologic biomarkers, and a dietary intake consisting of higher energy and fiber and lower total fat. The results of the study are useful for guiding health care programs aimed at institutionalized elderly individuals.

Keywords:
chronic noncommunicable diseases, aging, nursing home, institutionalization

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