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Frequency and coincidence of geriatric syndromes according to age groups: single-center experience in Turkey between 2013 and 2017

Authors Ates Bulut E, Soysal P, Isik AT

Received 15 July 2018

Accepted for publication 5 September 2018

Published 4 October 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1899—1905

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S180281

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker


Esra Ates Bulut,1 Pinar Soysal,2 Ahmet Turan Isik1

1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey

Background: Geriatric syndromes are complex clinical manifestations that are not an isolated disease in older adults and have common risk factors within themselves. The syndromes are significant causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased health care costs.
Objective: To determine the frequency of geriatric syndromes such as malnutrition, dementia, depression, falls, polypharmacy, urinary incontinence, pressure ulcer, sarcopenia, and frailty in community-dwelling older adults.
Methods: A total of 2,816 patients, who applied to geriatric outpatient clinic and were evaluated by comprehensive geriatric assessment, were included in this cross-sectional retrospective study. Falls in the last year and urinary incontinence were recorded. Polypharmacy was accepted as concurrent use of more than four drugs. Diagnosis of dementia and depression was defined according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition diagnostic criteria. In addition, frailty and sarcopenia were evaluated according to Fried’s physical frailty scale and European Working Group on Sarcopenia criteria, respectively.
Results: The frequency of polypharmacy was 54.5%, urinary incontinence 47.6%, malnutrition 9.6%, depression 35.1%, dementia 21.6%, falls 33.6%, sarcopenia 31.7%, and frailty 28.3%. When all the participants were divided into three groups (60–69, 70–79, ≥80 years), all syndromes were significantly increased with age, except for depression. While 20% of cases in 60–69 years age group did not have any syndromes, 48% of cases in ≥80 years had more than four syndromes simultaneously.
Conclusion: The frequency and coincidence of geriatric syndromes, except for depression, increases with age. Therefore, clinicians other than geriatricians taking care of older people should be aware of these syndromes as well as their treatment mechanisms.

Keywords: geriatric syndromes, frailty, sarcopenia, dementia, malnutrition

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