Fractionated photothermal antitumor therapy with multidye nanoparticles
Luke G Gutwein1, Amit K Singh2, Megan A Hahn2, Michael C Rule3, Jacquelyn A Knapik4, Brij M Moudgil2, Scott C Brown2, Stephen R Grobmyer1
1Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, 2Particle Engineering Research Center, 3Cell and Tissue Analysis Core, McKnight Brain Institute, 4Department of Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Purpose: Photothermal therapy is an emerging cancer treatment paradigm which involves highly localized heating and killing of tumor cells, due to the presence of nanomaterials that can strongly absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. In addition to having deep penetration depths in tissue, NIR light is innocuous to normal cells. Little is known currently about the fate of nanomaterials post photothermal ablation and the implications thereof. The purpose of this investigation was to define the intratumoral fate of nanoparticles (NPs) after photothermal therapy in vivo and characterize the use of novel multidye theranostic NPs (MDT-NPs) for fractionated photothermal antitumor therapy.
Methods: The photothermal and fluorescent properties of MDT-NPs were first characterized. To investigate the fate of nanomaterials following photothermal ablation in vivo, novel MDT-NPs and a murine mammary tumor model were used. Intratumoral injection of MDT-NPs and real-time fluorescence imaging before and after fractionated photothermal therapy was performed to study the intratumoral fate of MDT-NPs. Gross tumor and histological changes were made comparing MDT-NP treated and control tumor-bearing mice.
Results: The dual dye-loaded mesoporous NPs (ie, MDT-NPs; circa 100 nm) retained both their NIR absorbing and NIR fluorescent capabilities after photoactivation. In vivo MDT-NPs remained localized in the intratumoral position after photothermal ablation. With fractionated photothermal therapy, there was significant treatment effect observed macroscopically (P = 0.026) in experimental tumor-bearing mice compared to control treated tumor-bearing mice.
Conclusion: Fractionated photothermal therapy for cancer represents a new therapeutic paradigm enabled by the application of novel functional nanomaterials. MDT-NPs may advance clinical treatment of cancer by enabling fractionated real-time image guided photothermal therapy.
Keywords: fluorescence, mesoporous silica, biodistribution, photothermal ablation, live animal imaging, near-infrared nanoparticle, breast cancer
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