Formulation and characterization of chlorhexidine HCl nanoemulsion as a promising antibacterial root canal irrigant: in-vitro and ex-vivo studies
Received 8 February 2019
Accepted for publication 4 May 2019
Published 1 July 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 4697—4708
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Rehab Abdelmonem,1 Mona K Younis,1 Doaa H Hassan,1 Mohamed Abd El-Gawad El-Sayed Ahmed,2 Ehab Hassanein,3 Kariem El-Batouty,3 Alaa Elfaham3
1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr University for Science and Technology, 6th of October City, Egypt; 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr University for Science and Technology, 6th of October City, Egypt; 3Department of Endodontics Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Introduction and aim: Chlorhexidine Hydrochloride [Chx.HCl] has a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect, sustained action and low toxicity so it has been recommended as a potential root canal irrigant. The aim of this study was to improve the penetration ability, cleansing and antibacterial effect of Chx.HCl using a newly formulated Chx.HCl nanoemulsion and use it as root canal irrigant.
Methods: Chx.HCl nanoemulsions were prepared using two different oils; Oleic acid and Labrafil M1944CS, two surfactants; Tween 20 and Tween 80 and co-surfactant; Propylene Glycol. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to designate the optimum systems. The prepared nanoemulsion formulae were evaluated for their drug content, emulsification time, dispersibility, droplet size, in-vitro drug release, thermodynamic stability, In-vitro antibacterial activity and ex-vivo study for the selected formula. Comparisons were made of Chx.HCl nanoemulsion with two different concentrations 0.75% and 1.6% vs Chx.HCl normal particle size as root canal irrigant for their penetration ability, cleansing effect and antibacterial effect.
Results: The selected formula was F6 with composition of 2% Labrafil, 12% Tween 80 and 6% Propylene glycol. It has small particle size (12.18 nm), short emulsification time (1.67 seconds), and fast dissolution rate after 2 minutes. It was found to be a thermodynamically/physically stable system. The higher concentration of Chx.HClnanoemulsion1.6% shows the best penetration ability compared to Chx.HCl normal particle size due to the smaller particle size. Chx.HCl nanoemulsion 1.6% has the lowest mean value of the remaining debris surface area (2001.47 μm2,) when compared to normal particle size material (2609.56 μm2,).
Conclusion: Chx.HCl nanoemulsion preparation has better cleansing ability and antibacterial effect with high efficacy on Enterococcus faecalis, where high reduction rate or complete eradication of bacterial cells has been achieved.
Keywords: chlorhexidine hydrochloride, nanoemulsion, root canal irrigant, penetration ability, cleansing effect, antibacterial irrigant