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Fluoromica nanoparticle cytotoxicity in macrophages decreases with size and extent of uptake

Authors Tee N, Zhu Y, Mortimer G, Martin D, Minchin R

Received 9 January 2015

Accepted for publication 24 February 2015

Published 26 March 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 2363—2375


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J Webster

Nicolin Tee,1 Yingdong Zhu,2 Gysell M Mortimer,1 Darren J Martin,2 Rodney F Minchin1

1School of Biomedical Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Abstract: Polyurethanes are widely used in biomedical devices such as heart valves, pacemaker leads, catheters, vascular devices, and surgical dressings because of their excellent mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. Layered silicate nanoparticles can significantly increase tensile strength and breaking strain of polyurethanes potentially increasing the life span of biomedical devices that suffer from wear in vivo. However, very little is known about how these nanoparticles interact with proteins and cells and how they might exert unwanted effects. A series of fluoromica nanoparticles ranging in platelet size from 90 to over 600 nm in diameter were generated from the same base material ME100 by high energy milling and differential centrifugation. The cytotoxicity of the resulting particles was dependent on platelet size but in a manner that is opposite to many other types of nanomaterials. For the fluoromicas, the smaller the platelet size, the less toxicity was observed. The small fluoromica nanoparticles (<200 nm) were internalized by macrophages via scavenger receptors, which was dependent on the protein corona formed in serum. This internalization was associated with apoptosis in RAW cells but not in dTHP-1 cells. The larger particles were not internalized efficiently but mostly decorated the surface of the cells, causing membrane disruption, even in the presence of 80% serum. This work suggests the smaller fluoromica platelets may be safer for use in humans but their propensity to recognize macrophage scavenger receptors also suggests that they will target the reticulo-endoplasmic system in vivo.

Keywords: layered silicates, accumulation, phagocytosis, high energy milling

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