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Fetal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment resulted in a failure of cord blood endothelial progenitor cell adaptation against chronic hypoxia

Authors Dincer UD

Received 2 September 2014

Accepted for publication 25 September 2014

Published 18 December 2014 Volume 2015:8 Pages 1—14

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/SCCAA.S73658

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Bernard Binetruy

U Deniz Dincer

Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University (BAVU), Fatih/Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has long-term health consequences, and fetal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment increases cardiovascular risk for her adult offspring. Some part of this could be related to their endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Understanding the vessel-forming ability of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB)-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) against pathological stress such as GDM response to hypoxia could generate new therapeutic strategies. This study aims to investigate the role of chronic hypoxia in EPCs functional and vessel-forming ability in GDM subjects. Each ECFC was expressed in endothelial and pro-angiogenic specific markers, namely endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), platelet (PECAM-1) endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, vascular endothelial-cadherin CdH5 (Ca-dependent cell adhesion molecule), vascular endothelial growth factor A, (VEGFA) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Chronic hypoxia did not affect CdH5, but PECAM1 MRNA expressions were increased in control and GDM subjects. Control hypoxic and GDM normoxic VEGFA MRNA expressions and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) protein expressions were significantly increased in HUCB ECFCs. GDM resulted in most failure of HUCB ECFC adaptation and eNOS protein expressions against chronic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia resulted in an overall decline in HUCB ECFCs' proliferative ability due to reduction of clonogenic capacity and diminished vessel formation. Furthermore, GDM also resulted in most failure of cord blood ECFC adaptation against chronic hypoxic environment.

Keywords: endothelial progenitor cells, gestational diabetes mellitus, chronic hypoxia, human cord blood


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