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Features of self-management interventions for people with COPD associated with improved health-related quality of life and reduced emergency department visits: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Newham JJ, Presseau J, Heslop-Marshall K, Russell S, Ogunbayo OJ, Netts P, Hanratty B, Kaner E

Received 26 January 2017

Accepted for publication 22 March 2017

Published 8 June 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1705—1720

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S133317

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

James J Newham,1 Justin Presseau,2 Karen Heslop-Marshall,1 Sian Russell,1 Oladapo J Ogunbayo,1 Paul Netts,3 Barbara Hanratty,1 Eileen Kaner1

1Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3NHS Newcastle Gateshead Clinical Commissioning Group, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Background: Self-management interventions (SMIs) are recommended for individuals with COPD to help monitor symptoms and optimize health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, SMIs vary widely in content, delivery, and intensity, making it unclear which methods and techniques are associated with improved outcomes. This systematic review aimed to summarize the current evidence base surrounding the effectiveness of SMIs for improving HRQOL in people with COPD.
Methods: Systematic reviews that focused upon SMIs were eligible for inclusion. Intervention descriptions were coded for behavior change techniques (BCTs) that targeted self-management behaviors to address 1) symptoms, 2) physical activity, and 3) mental health. Meta-analyses and meta-regression were used to explore the association between health behaviors targeted by SMIs, the BCTs used, patient illness severity, and modes of delivery, with the impact on HRQOL and emergency department (ED) visits.
Results: Data related to SMI content were extracted from 26 randomized controlled trials identified from 11 systematic reviews. Patients receiving SMIs reported improved HRQOL (standardized mean difference =−0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] =−0.25, −0.07; P=0.001) and made fewer ED visits (standardized mean difference =−0.13; 95% CI =−0.23, −0.03; P=0.02) compared to patients who received usual care. Patients receiving SMIs targeting mental health alongside symptom management had greater improvement of HRQOL (Q=4.37; P=0.04) and fewer ED visits (Q=5.95; P=0.02) than patients receiving SMIs focused on symptom management alone. Within-group analyses showed that HRQOL was significantly improved in 1) studies with COPD patients with severe symptoms, 2) single-practitioner based SMIs but not SMIs delivered by a multidisciplinary team, 3) SMIs with multiple sessions but not single session SMIs, and 4) both individual- and group-based SMIs.
Conclusion: SMIs can be effective at improving HRQOL and reducing ED visits, with those targeting mental health being significantly more effective than those targeting symptom management alone.

Keywords: self-management, emergency department visits, behavior change techniques, COPD, mental health, meta-analysis

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