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Factors associated with failure to achieve remission and with relapse after remission in patients with major depressive disorder in the PERFORM study

Authors Saragoussi D, Touya M, Haro JM, Jönsson B, Knapp M, Botrel B, Florea I, Loft H, Rive B

Received 7 March 2017

Accepted for publication 6 June 2017

Published 9 August 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 2151—2165

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S136343

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Prof. Dr. Roumen Kirov

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder


Delphine Saragoussi,1 Maëlys Touya,2 Josep Maria Haro,3 Bengt Jönsson,4 Martin Knapp,5 Bastien Botrel,6 Ioana Florea,7 Henrik Loft,8 Benoît Rive9

1Real-World Evidence and Epidemiology, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL, US; 3Research and Teaching Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 6Biostatistics, Inferential, Paris, France; 7Clinical Research Paediatrics, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark; 8Biometrics, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark; 9Global Analytics, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France

Background: The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major Depressive Disorder (PERFORM) study has been initiated to better understand the course of a depressive episode and its impact on patient functioning. This analysis aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with failure to achieve remission at month 2 after initiating or switching antidepressant monotherapy and with subsequent relapse at month 6 for patients in remission at month 2.
Materials and methods: This was a 2-year observational cohort study in 1,159 outpatients aged 18–65 years with major depressive disorder initiating or undergoing the first switch of antidepressant monotherapy. Factors with P<0.20 in univariate logistic regression analyses were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to which backward variable selection was applied (ie, sequential removal of the least significant variable from the model and recomputation of the model until all remaining variables have P<0.05).
Results: Baseline factors significantly associated with lower odds of remission at month 2 were body-mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR 0.51), depressive episode >8 weeks (OR 0.51), being in psychotherapy (OR 0.51), sexual dysfunction (OR 0.62), and severity of depression (OR 0.87). Factors significantly associated with relapse at month 6 were male sex (OR 2.47), being married or living as a couple (OR 2.73), residual patient-reported cognitive symptoms at 2 months (OR 1.12 per additional unit of Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-5 score) and residual depressive symptoms at 2 months (OR 1.27 per additional unit of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score).
Conclusion: Different factors appear to be associated with failure to achieve remission in patients with major depressive disorder and with subsequent relapse in patients who do achieve remission. Patient-reported cognitive dysfunction is an easily measurable and treatable characteristic that may be associated with an increased likelihood of relapse at 6 months in patients who have achieved remission.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, remission, relapse, patient-reported cognitive dysfunction

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