Factors associated with carotid intima-media thickness in patients on maintenance hemodialysis
Received 6 July 2018
Accepted for publication 9 November 2018
Published 18 December 2018 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1—6
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
RA Tuty Kuswardhani,1 Ketut Gede Wiradharma,2 Yenny Kandarini,3 Gde Raka Widiana,3 Elysanti Dwi Martadiani4
1Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Sumbawa District Hospital, Sumbawa Besar, Indonesia; 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia; 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with various parameters in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (mHD).
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 68 subjects (41 men, 27 women) on mHD in the Hemodialysis Unit, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia. CIMT was measured with B-mode ultrasonography using a USG Sonoace 8000 and a 7.5 MHz linear transducer.
Results: CIMT was higher in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with those without CVD (0.6494 vs 0.7288 mm; P=0.026), and in men compared with women (0.7056 vs 0.6141 mm; P=0.003). CIMT was correlated with age (R=0.607; P<0.001), plasma albumin (R=−0.291, P=0.016), serum phosphate (R=−0.294, P=0.015), calcium-phosphate product (R=−0.284, P=0.011), and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (R=0.279, P=0.030). However, after multiple linear regression testing, only age consistently had a role in determining the CIMT value (β=0.452, P<0.001).
Conclusion: Subjects with CVD have higher CIMT than those without CVD and men had higher CIMT than women. In addition, older age, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lower albumin, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product levels were correlated with higher CIMT. Age was the most important marker for CIMT in subjects on mHD.
Keywords: carotid intima-media thickness, hemodialysis, age
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