Extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training: a randomized clinical trial
Samária Ali Cader,1 Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale,1 Victor Emmanuel Zamora,2 Claudia Henrique Costa,2 Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas1
1Laboratory of Human Kinetics Bioscience, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, 2Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, School of Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extubation process in bed-ridden elderly intensive care patients receiving inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and identify predictors of successful weaning.
Methods: Twenty-eight elderly intubated patients in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 14) that received conventional physiotherapy plus IMT with a Threshold IMT® device or to a control group (n = 14) that received only conventional physiotherapy. The experimental protocol for muscle training consisted of an initial load of 30% maximum inspiratory pressure, which was increased by 10% daily. The training was administered for 5 minutes, twice daily, 7 days a week, with supplemental oxygen from the beginning of weaning until extubation. Successful extubation was defined by the ventilation time measurement with noninvasive positive pressure. A vacuum manometer was used for measurement of maximum inspiratory pressure, and the patients' Tobin index values were measured using a ventilometer.
Results: The maximum inspiratory pressure increased significantly (by 7 cm H2O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4–10), and the Tobin index decreased significantly (by 16 breaths/min/L, 95% CI −26 to 6) in the experimental group compared with the control group. The Chi-squared distribution did not indicate a significant difference in weaning success between the groups (Χ2 = 1.47; P = 0.20). However, a comparison of noninvasive positive pressure time dependence indicated a significantly lower value for the experimental group (P = 0.0001; 95% CI 13.08–18.06). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area beneath the curve of 0.877 ± 0.06 for the Tobin index and 0.845 ± 0.07 for maximum inspiratory pressure.
Conclusion: The IMT intervention significantly increased maximum inspiratory pressure and significantly reduced the Tobin index; both measures are considered to be good extubation indices. IMT was associated with a reduction in noninvasive positive pressure time in the experimental group.
Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, rehabilitation, extubation
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