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Extrafine Beclometasone Dipropionate/Formoterol Fumarate vs Double Bronchodilation Therapy in Patients with COPD: A Historical Real-World Non-Inferiority Study

Authors Voorham J, Baldi S, Santoro L, Kerkhof M, Contoli M, Fabbri LM, Kerstjens HAM, Luis López-Campos J, Roche N, Singh D, Vogelmeier CF, Price DB

Received 1 July 2020

Accepted for publication 7 October 2020

Published 29 October 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 2739—2750


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Jaco Voorham,1,2 Simonetta Baldi,3 Luigi Santoro,4 Marjan Kerkhof,1,5 Marco Contoli,6 Leonardo M Fabbri,6 Huib AM Kerstjens,7 Jose Luis López-Campos,8 Nicolas Roche,9 Dave Singh,10 Claus F Vogelmeier,11 David B Price1,12

1Observational & Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd, Singapore, Singapore; 2Data to Insights Research Solutions, Lisbon, Portugal; 3Department of Global Clinical Development, Chiesi SAS, Bois Colombes Cedex, France; 4Department of Global Clinical Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A, Parma, Italy; 5Mescio Research, Blauwestad, The Netherlands; 6Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 7Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 8Respiratory Diseases Unit, University Hospital Virgen Del Rocío, Seville, Spain; 9Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Centre-Université de Paris, Paris, France; 10University of Manchester, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 11Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Marburg, Member of the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Marburg, Germany; 12Centre of Academic Primary Care, Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK

Correspondence: David B Price
Academic Primary Care, Division of Applied Health Sciences University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD 198785, UK
Tel +65 6962 3627

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the non-inferiority of initiating extrafine beclometasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate (BDP/FF) versus double bronchodilation (long-acting beta-agonists [LABA]/long-acting muscarinic antagonists [LAMA]) among patients with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.
Patients and Methods: A historical cohort study was conducted using data from the UK’s Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Patients with COPD ≥ 40 years at diagnosis were included if they initiated extrafine BDP/FF or any LABA/LAMA double therapy as a step-up from no maintenance therapy or monotherapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), LAMA, or LABA and a history of ≥ 2 moderate/severe exacerbations in the previous two years. The primary outcome was exacerbation rate from therapy initiation until a relevant therapy change or end of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included rate of acute respiratory events, acute oral corticosteroids (OCS) courses, and antibiotic prescriptions with lower respiratory indication, modified Medical Research Council score (mMRC) ≥ 2, and time to first pneumonia diagnosis. The non-inferiority boundary was set at a relative difference of 15% on the ratio scale. Five potential treatment effect modifiers were investigated.
Results: A total of 1735 patients initiated extrafine BDP/FF and 2450 patients initiated LABA/LAMA. The mean age was 70 years, 51% were male, 41% current smokers, and 85% had FEV1 < 80% predicted. Extrafine BDP/FF showed non-inferiority to LABA/LAMA for rate of exacerbations (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.01 [95% CI 0.94– 1.09]), acute respiratory events (IRR = 0.98 [0.92– 1.04]), acute OCS courses (IRR = 1.01 [0.91– 1.11]), and antibiotic prescriptions (IRR = 0.99 [0.90– 1.09]), but not for mMRC (OR = 0.93 [0.69– 1.27]) or risk of pneumonia (HR = 0.50 [0.14– 1.73]). None of the a priori defined effect modifier candidates affected the comparative effectiveness.
Conclusion: This study found that stepping up to extrafine BDP/FF from no maintenance or monotherapy was not inferior to stepping up to double bronchodilation therapy in patients with a history of exacerbations.

Keywords: real-world, electronic health records, observational, comparative effectiveness, heterogeneity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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