Extracts and components of Ficus carica leaves suppress survival, cell cycle, and migration of triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells
Authors Zhang Y, Wan Y, Huo B, Li B, Jin Y, Hu X
Received 19 April 2018
Accepted for publication 28 May 2018
Published 27 July 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 4377—4386
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Takuya Aoki
Yu Zhang,1 Youzhong Wan,1,2 Bo Huo,1 Boyuan Li,1 Yue Jin,1 Xin Hu1
1School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China; 2National Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China
Background: Products from Ficus carica have been used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. This study aimed to analyze anticancer effects of extracts of F. carica leaves on the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Materials and methods: The human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to evaluate effects of F. carica extracts. Effects of F. carica on cell viability were evaluated using MTT assays. Cell-cycle distribution was examined using cell-cycle analysis. Wound-healing assays were used to evaluate migration of MDA-MB-231. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect levels of Bax, p53, p21, GATA3, ELF5, cyclin-dependent kinases, MMP2, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase.
Results: We investigated the mechanism of anti-growth effects, and found that the expressions of genes that promote apoptosis were increased. In addition, the treated cells illustrated increased portion at S phase and changed expression of cyclin-dependent kinases, demonstrating cell-cycle arrest at the S phase. Furthermore, treated cells showed decreased cell mobility, which is essential for metastasis. Two of the active components of F. carica leaves, bergapten and psoralen, had similar anticancer effects as F. carica leaf extracts, indicating that these two components might play important roles in anticancer effects of F. carica leaves.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that F. carica leaves might be a good source to develop drugs for suppressing cancer-cell growth and migration to treat triple-negative breast cancers.
Keywords: Ficus carica, breast cancer, MDA-MB-231, migration
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