Exploration of Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia Subtypes Based on a Survey of 204 US Psychiatrists
Authors Correll CU, Brevig T, Brain C
Received 16 October 2019
Accepted for publication 21 November 2019
Published 19 December 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 3461—3473
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Christoph U Correll,1–3 Thomas Brevig,4 Cecilia Brain4
1The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Glen Oaks, NY, USA; 2The Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA; 3Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany; 4H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark
Correspondence: Christoph U Correll
The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Psychiatry Research, 75–59 263rd Street, Glen Oaks, NY 11004, USA
Tel +1 718 470-4812
Fax +1 718 343-1659
Email [email protected]
Objective: To explore and describe potential subgroups within the treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) population, using data from a survey of US psychiatrists.
Methods: Psychiatrists completed an online survey of demographic/clinical characteristics and treatment history for two of their patients with TRS. Patients were stratified according to number of suicide attempts, number of hospitalizations, employment status, and TRS onset time frame.
Results: Of the 408 patients with TRS described by psychiatrists, 37.5% had ≥1 suicide attempt, 78.9% had ≥2 hospitalizations, 74.5% were unemployed, 45.0% had TRS onset within 5 years of first treatment (a further 8.0% had TRS from first treatment), and 31.5% had TRS onset after 5 years (15.5% unknown). Patients with ≥1 (vs 0) suicide attempts had statistically significantly more psychiatric (3.6 vs 2.2) and physical (2.2 vs 1.6) comorbidities. Patients with ≥2 (vs ≤1) hospitalizations were statistically significantly more likely to have hallucinations, conceptual disorganization, social withdrawal, and cognitive dysfunction, and had more psychiatric (3.0 vs 1.9) and physical (2.0 vs 1.1) comorbidities. Unemployed (vs employed) patients were statistically significantly more likely to have delusions, hallucinations, blunted affect, social withdrawal, and cognitive dysfunction, and had more psychiatric (2.9 vs 2.3) and physical (2.1 vs 1.2) comorbidities. Patients with TRS onset ≤5 (vs >5) years were statistically significantly younger (35.0 vs 43.7 years), less likely to have hallucinations and social withdrawal, and had fewer psychiatric (2.6 vs 3.3) and physical (1.7 vs 2.3) comorbidities.
Conclusions: Greater clinical burden in TRS is associated with greater illness severity and chronicity markers, suggesting a dimensional gradient from non-TRS to mild–moderate and more severe forms of TRS. Time to onset of TRS may have implications for outcomes, with data indicating greater burden in those with late-onset TRS. Accumulation of illness over time may be more important than time to onset.
Keywords: clinical burden, demography, psychiatry, schizophrenia, surveys and questionnaires, treatment resistance
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