Excess coronary artery disease risk in South Asian immigrants: Can dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein explain increased risk?
Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States (US), and South Asian immigrants (SAIs) have a higher risk of CAD compared to Caucasians. Traditional risk factors may not completely explain high risk, and some of the unknown risk factors need to be explored. This short review is mainly focused on the possible role of dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in causing CAD and presents an overview of available literature on dysfunctional HDL.
Discussion: The conventional risk factors, insulin resistance parameters, and metabolic syndrome, although important in predicting CAD risk, may not sufficiently predict risk in SAIs. HDL has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antithrombotic properties that contribute to its function as an antiatherogenic agent. Recent Caucasian studies have shown HDL is not only ineffective as an antioxidant but, paradoxically, appears to be prooxidant, and has been found to be associated with CAD. Several causes have been hypothesized for HDL to become dysfunctional, including Apo lipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) polymorphisms. New risk factors and markers like dysfunctional HDL and genetic polymorphisms may be associated with CAD.
Conclusions: More research is required in SAIs to explore associations with CAD and to enhance early detection and prevention of CAD in this high risk group.
Keywords: South Asian immigrants, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular risk, high-density lipoprotein
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF]
Readers of this article also read:
Published Date: 16 April 2015
Efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus trastuzumab in a long-surviving heavily pretreated HER2-positive breast cancer patient with brain metastases
Ricciardi GRR, Russo A, Franchina T, Ferraro G, Adamo V
Published Date: 2 February 2015
Zhang YT, Shen LN, Zhao JH, Feng NP
Published Date: 23 January 2014
Biomimetic three-dimensional nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotube chitosan nanocomposite for bone regeneration
Im O, Li J, Wang M, Zhang LG, Keidar M
Published Date: 24 April 2012
Guo Y, Zhang D, Lu H, Luo S, Shen X
Published Date: 27 March 2012
Using a technology-based intervention to promote weight loss in sedentary overweight or obese adults: a randomized controlled trial study design
Vaughn W Barry, Amanda C McClain, Sara Shuger, et al
Published Date: 4 February 2011
The effects of prior calcium channel blocker therapy on creatine kinase-MB levels after percutaneous coronary interventions
Oyku Gulmez, Ilyas Atar, Bülent Ozin, Mehmet Emin Korkmaz, Asli Atar, et al
Published Date: 5 December 2008
Renin inhibition with aliskiren in hypertension: focus on aliskiren/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy
Kalathil K Sureshkumar
Published Date: 5 December 2008
Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection
Manohar R Chintu, Shammikumar Chinnappa, Sunil Bhandari
Published Date: 10 October 2008
Cristina Sierra, Alejandro de la Sierra
Published Date: 11 April 2008