Examining psychometric properties and measurement invariance of a Chinese version of the Self-Compassion Scale – Short Form (SCS-SF) in nursing students and medical workers
Received 20 May 2019
Accepted for publication 15 August 2019
Published 30 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 793—809
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Igor Elman
Runtang Meng,1,2,* Yong Yu,2,3,* Shouxia Chai,4,* Xiangyu Luo,5 Boxiong Gong,6 Bing Liu,2,3 Ying Hu,1,7 Yi Luo,8 Chuanhua Yu1,7
1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, People’s Republic of China; 2Centre of Health Administration and Development Studies, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Public Health and Management, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Nursing, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Oncology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, People’s Republic of China; 7Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People’s Republic of China; 8School of Nursing, Ningbo College of Health Sciences, Ningbo 315100, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Chuanhua Yu
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 276 875 9299
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: Self-compassion has been regarded as a key psychological construct and a protective factor of mental health status. The focus of the present study was to adapt the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) into Chinese, assess the validity and reliability of the measure and test measurement invariance (MI) across nursing students and medical workers.
Methods: The current study assessed the psychometric properties and invariance of the SCS-Short Form (SCS-SF) in two samples of 2676 from nursing students and medical workers. For construct validity, confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFAs and EFAs) were conducted. Using Perceived Stress Questionnaire , Short Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8) and Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, we evaluated concurrent validity and convergent/divergent validity. For reliability, internal consistency and test–retest analysis were employed. Multi-group analyses were conducted to examine MI of the different SCS-models across populations.
Results: CFA showed that the proposed six-factor second‐order model could not be replicated and the six-factor first‐order model was a reasonable to mediocre fitting model in both samples. EFA supported a three-factor structure which consisted of one positive and two negative factors. CFA confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor structure with 10 items ultimately was considered as the optimal model on the fitted results. The SCS-SF‐10 (10 items form) also demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and test–retest reliability, as well as strong concurrent validity with measures of stress perception, health status, anxious and depressive symptoms. Convergent/divergent validity was not satisfactory. Multi-group CFAs provided support for the validity of the established models.
Conclusion: The Chinese version of the SCS-SF‐10 has sound psychometric properties and can be applied to efficiently assess self-compassion in Chinese-speaking populations. The current study contributes to the identification and measurement of self-compassion after adversities.
Keywords: medical workers, nursing students, self-compassion, Chinese, measurement invariance, psychometric assessment
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