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Evolution of membrane oxygenator technology for utilization during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass

Authors Melchior R, Sutton S, Harris W, Dalton H

Received 11 October 2014

Accepted for publication 24 March 2015

Published 28 June 2016 Volume 2016:7 Pages 45—56


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Laurens Holmes, Jr

Richard W Melchior,1 Steven W Sutton,2 William Harris,3 Heidi J Dalton4,5

1Department of Perfusion Services, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 2Cardiovascular Support Services, Inc., Dallas, TX, 3Department of Perfusion Services, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, 4Alaskan Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, 5Department of Child Health, University of Arizona-College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Abstract: The development of the membrane oxygenator for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass has been an incorporation of ideology and technological advancements with contributions by many investigators throughout the past two centuries. With the pursuit of this technological achievement, the ability to care for mankind in the areas of cardiac surgery has been made possible. Heart disease can affect anyone within the general population, but one such segment that it can affect from inception includes children. Currently, congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects nationally and worldwide. A large meta-analysis study from 1930 to 2010 was conducted in review of published medical literature totaling 114 papers with a study population of 24,091,867 live births, and divulged a staggering incidence of congenital heart disease involving 164,396 subjects with diverse cardiac illnesses. The prevalence of these diseases increased from 0.6 per 1,000 live births from 1930–1934 to 9.1 per 1,000 live births after 1995. These data reveal an emphasis on a growing public health issue regarding congenital heart disease. This discovery displays a need for heightened awareness in the scientific and medical industrial community to accelerate investigative research on emerging cardiovascular devices in an effort to confront congenital anomalies. One such device that has evolved over the past several decades is the pediatric membrane oxygenator. The pediatric membrane oxygenator, in conjunction with the heart lung machine, assists in the repair of most congenital cardiac defects. Numerous children born with congenital heart disease with or without congestive heart failure have experienced improved clinical outcomes in quality of life, survival, and mortality as a result of the inclusion of this technology during their cardiac surgical procedure. The purpose of this review is to report a summary of the published medical and scientific literature related to development of the pediatric membrane oxygenator from its conceptual evolutionary stages to artificially supporting whole body perfusion in the modern pediatric cardiac surgical setting.

Keywords: cardiovascular perfusion, pediatric cardiac surgery, extracorporeal technological advancement

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