Evaluation of selected ultra-trace minerals in commercially available dry dog foods
Received 19 February 2018
Accepted for publication 10 April 2018
Published 26 June 2018 Volume 2018:9 Pages 43—51
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo
Hyun-tae Kim,1 John P Loftus,1 Jason W Gagné,1 Michael A Rutzke,2 Raymond P Glahn,3 Joseph J Wakshlag1
1Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ithaca, NY, USA; 2Cornell University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, School of Integrative Plant Sciences, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ithaca, NY, USA
Purpose: To evaluate the concentrations of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silica, and aluminum in several commercially available dry dog foods and compare these with current World Health Organization’s (WHO) mean human daily dietary intake. Conversion of dietary intake per megacalorie (Mcal) for both dog foods and human average intake was performed based on the National Research Council recommendation of a 2,900 kcal diet for comparative purposes to average intake and potential toxic exposure.
Materials and methods: Forty-nine over-the-counter dry foods formulated for maintenance of healthy dogs yet listed as all life stage foods were analyzed. Concentrations of the ultra-trace minerals were measured via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and represented per Mcal for comparative purposes as it relates to common intake in dogs in comparison with humans.
Results: Chromium, molybdenum, and aluminum concentrations in all of the dog foods were at levels that would be considered above average human daily consumption on a caloric basis. Nickel and silica calculated intakes per Mcal were comparable with human intake patterns, while both trace minerals displayed outliers exceeding at least twofold of the upper range of human daily intake.
Conclusion: Overall, ultra-trace minerals found in dog foods were above the expected average daily intake for humans on a caloric basis. There was no evidence of potential chronic toxic exposure based on presumptive intake extrapolated from WHO published toxic intake concentrations for humans or domestic animals. The large range of silica intake from various foods (2.96–83.67 mg/1,000 kcal) may have health implications in dogs prone to silica urolithiasis. Further studies investigating the bioavailability of these ultra-trace minerals and establishing dietary ultra-trace mineral allowance would be ideal; however, based on these findings, consumption of these ultra-trace minerals in over-the-counter dry dog foods appears safe.
Keywords: dog food, ultra-trace minerals, food safety, ICP-AES
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