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Evaluation of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated Among Pregnant Women Under Option B+ by Viral Load and CD4 Count Outcomes in Selected Hospitals of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Authors Demissie DB, Bulto GA, Mekuria WT, Dufera FN, Gamshe EN

Received 13 December 2019

Accepted for publication 10 March 2020

Published 19 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 127—134


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya

Dereje Bayissa Demissie,1 Gizachew Abdissa Bulto,2 Wagi Tosisa Mekuria,3 Fikru Negassa Dufera,4 Eriste Nigussa Gamshe1

1Department of Neonatal Nursing, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia; 4Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopa

Correspondence: Dereje Bayissa Demissie Email

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, reducing infant mortality and ensuring maternal virologic suppression, while pregnant women require test and treat under Option B+ programs. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the evaluation of antiretroviral therapy initiated among pregnant women under Option B+ by viral load and CD4 count outcomes in selected hospitals of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed to conduct the study at randomly selected hospitals providing Option B+ services with routine viral load assessment by Oromia Regional Laboratory (ORL) from January 2016 to January 2017. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors affecting the time to ART initiation following an HIV test and logistic regression was used to determine the correlation between time and treatment outcomes.
Results: The viral load suppression (VL < 1000 copies/mL) was achieved in 31% and 58.7% of patients who were on ART treatment for ≤ 37 months and longer than 38 months, respectively. It was identified that the mean viral load and CD4 count were 197.27 and 629.17, respectively, while 85.3% of the clients had their CD4 count increased from the baseline data. The study revealed that level of ART adherence, completion of full doses, compliance on appointments, duration of the ART uptake and baseline CD4 count were independent predictors of viral load suppression for women started on option B+ and continued on lifelong ART. And this study also revealed that gestational age at ART start, maternal age in years and adherence on medication were independently associated with CD4 response among HIV pregnant women initiated for lifelong ART.
Conclusion: The study results demonstrated that for 89.7% of study respondents, viral load was suppressed of which 80.3% were undetectable (VL= 0 copies/ml3 and 85.3% had increased CD4 count). This study determined the factors associated with viral load suppression and CD4 count improvement. Therefore, these factors should be emphatically considered during Option B+ program development and training to ensure CD4 count improvement and viral load suppression achievements.

Keywords: antiretroviral therapy, initiation pregnant women Option B +, viral load, CD4 count

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