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Evaluation of analgesic activity and toxicity of alkaloids in Myristica fragrans seeds in mice

Authors Hayfaa AA, Sahar AA, Awatif MA

Received 23 March 2013

Accepted for publication 16 May 2013

Published 31 July 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 611—615

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S45591

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

A Al-Shammary Hayfaa,1 AA Malik Al-Saadi Sahar,2 M Al-Saeidy Awatif3

1College of Science, Department of Medical Analysis, Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar, Iraq; 2College of Science, Biology Department, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; 3College of Science, Biology Department, Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar, Iraq

Aim: To examine the analgesic effect of alkaloids in Myristica fragrans seed in a mouse model of acetic acid-induced visceral pain.
Methods: Alkaloids were extracted from ground nutmeg seed kernels with 10% acetic acid in 95% ethyl alcohol. Visceral pain was induced in male and female BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% acetic acid. Analgesic effect of alkaloids (0.5 gram or 1 gram per kilogram [g/kg], by mouth) was assessed by evaluating writhing response. Acute toxicity was tested in response to 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 g/kg of alkaloid extract; the median lethal dose (LD50) was determined by probit analysis.
Results: Alkaloid extract at a dose of 1 g/kg significantly reduced the number of writhing responses in female, but not male mice; 0.5 g/kg of alkaloid extract had no effect in either sex. The LD50 was 5.1 g/kg. Signs of abnormal behavior, including hypoactivity, unstable gait, and dizziness were seen in animals given a dose of 4 g/kg or higher; abnormal behavior lasted for several hours after administration of the alkaloids.
Conclusion: According to the classification of Loomis and Hayes, M. fragrans seed alkaloids have analgesic activity and are slightly toxic.

Keywords: analgesic, mice, LD50, acetic acid, visceral pain, nutmeg

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