Enzalutamide as a second generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer
Julius Semenas,1 Nishtman Dizeyi,2 Jenny Liao Persson1
1Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden; 2Division of Urological Research, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden
Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy, and the third leading cancer-related cause of death among men of the Western world. Upon PCa progression into metastatic disease, androgen deprivation therapy is applied as the first-line treatment, and has been shown to be effective in most patients, leading to a decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen and relief of disease-related symptoms. However, advanced PCa almost inevitably progresses to a castration-resistant state, and is currently regarded as incurable. The large body of evidence indicates that PCa cells remain dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling even in an androgen-deprived environment. As such, development of drugs that target AR and AR signaling pathways have become one of the major milestones in treatment of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Nevertheless, currently available therapies that target AR signaling are still regarded as palliative and more potent therapies are in great need. Over the past few years, a wide range of novel therapies has entered clinical trial for treatment of CRPC, including androgen synthesis inhibitors (abiraterone acetate), chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel and cabazitaxel), and immunotherapies (sipuleucel-T). In this context, enzalutamide (previously referred to as MDV3100) is a novel second generation antiandrogen that has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in men with metastatic CRPC in several clinical trials. In this paper we summarize recently completed and ongoing clinical trials of enzalutamide, and briefly discuss the efficacy of the novel antiandrogen therapy and its limitations for treatment of CRPC.
Keywords: castration resistant prostate cancer, drug resistance, clinical trials
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