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Enhancement of surface bioactivity on carbon fiber-reinforced polyether ether ketone via graphene modification

Authors Yan JH, Wang CH, Li KW, Zhang Q, Yang M, Di-Wu WL, Yan M, Song Y, Ba JJ, Bi L, Han YS

Received 16 December 2017

Accepted for publication 30 March 2018

Published 14 June 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 3425—3440

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S160030

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Yu Mi

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Jin-Hong Yan,1,* Chun-Hui Wang,2,* Ke-Wen Li,1,3,* Qi Zhang,1 Min Yang,1 Wei-Long Di-Wu,1 Ming Yan,1 Yue Song,1 Jing-Jing Ba,4 Long Bi,1 Yi-Sheng Han1

1Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 2Department of Army Military Medical Frontier Medical Service Brigade, Urumqi Ethnic Cadre College, Urumqi, Xinjiang Uyghur, 3Department of Orthopedics, Qinghai University Affiliated Hospital, Xining, Qinghai, 4Shandong Weigao Orthopedic Mechanics Laboratory, Weihai, Shandong, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background and objective: The modulus of carbon fiber-reinforced polyether ether ketone (CFR-PEEK), a composite containing layers of carbon fiber sheets, can be precisely controlled to match bone. However, CFR-PEEK is biologically inert and cannot promote bone apposition. The objective of this study was to investigate whether graphene modification could enhance the bioactivity of CFR-PEEK.
Methods and results: In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells on scaffolds were quantified via cell-counting kit-8 assay and Western blotting analysis of osteoblast-specific proteins. Graphene modification significantly promoted bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and accelerated induced differentiation into osteogenic lineages compared to cells seeded onto nongraphene-coated CFR-PEEK. An in vivo rabbit extraarticular graft-to-bone healing model was established. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery, microcomputed tomography analyses and histological observations revealed significantly better microstructural parameters and higher average mineral apposition rates for graphene-modified CFR-PEEK implants than CFR-PEEK implants (P<0.05). van Gieson staining indicated more new bone was formed around graphene-modified CFR-PEEK implants than CFR-PEEK implants.
Conclusion: Graphene may have considerable potential to enhance the bioactivity and osseointegration of CFR-PEEK implants for clinical applications.

Keywords: graphene, carbon fiber-reinforced polyether ether ketone, surface modification, bioactivity, osseointegration

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