Enhanced uptake and transport of (+)-catechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in niosomal formulation by human intestinal Caco-2 cells
Qinxin Song,1–3 Danhui Li,3 Yongzhi Zhou,3 Jie Yang,1 Wanqi Yang,1 Guohua Zhou,2 Jingyuan Wen3
1Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate (+)-catechin and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) cellular uptake and transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer in both the absence and presence of niosomal carrier in variable conditions. The effect of free drugs and drug-loaded niosomes on the growth of Caco-2 cells was studied. The effects of time, temperature, and concentration on drug cellular uptake in the absence or presence of its niosomal delivery systems were investigated. The intestinal epithelial membrane transport of the drug-loaded niosomes was examined using the monolayer of the human Caco-2 cells. The kinetics of transport, and the effect of temperature, adenosine triphosphate inhibitor, permeability glycoprotein inhibitor, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 inhibitor, and the absorption enhancer on transport mechanism were investigated. It was found that the uptake of catechin, EGCG, and their niosomes by Caco-2 cells was 1.22±0.16, 0.90±0.14, 3.25±0.37, and 1.92±0.22 µg/mg protein, respectively (n=3). The apparent permeability coefficient values of catechin, EGCG, and their niosomes were 1.68±0.16, 0.88±0.09, 2.39±0.31, and 1.42±0.24 cm/second (n=3) at 37°C, respectively. The transport was temperature- and energy-dependent. The inhibitors of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and the absorption enhancer significantly enhanced the uptake amount. Compared with the free drugs, niosomal formulation significantly enhanced drug absorption. Additionally, drug-loaded niosomes exhibited stronger stability and lower toxicity. These findings showed that the oral absorption of tea flavonoids could be improved by using the novel drug delivery systems.
Keywords: niosomes, formulation, bioavailability, stability
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