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Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium

Authors Zhu W, Teel G, O’Brien CM, Zhuang T, Keidar M, Zhang LG

Received 20 July 2015

Accepted for publication 7 October 2015

Published 10 December 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 7385—7396

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S92733

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Yu Mi

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Wei Zhu,1 George Teel,1 Christopher M O’Brien,1 Taisen Zhuang,1 Michael Keidar,1 Lijie Grace Zhang1–3

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

Abstract: Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium’s osseointegration involves inducing biomimetic nanotopography to enhance cell–implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications.

Keywords: titanium, mesenchymal stem cell, plasma, nanocoating, orthopedics

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