Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 11

Enhanced chondrocyte culture and growth on biologically inspired nanofibrous cell culture dishes

Authors Bhardwaj G, Webster T

Received 8 August 2015

Accepted for publication 20 December 2015

Published 4 February 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 479—483

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S94000

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Garima Bhardwaj,1 Thomas J Webster1,2

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Abstract: Chondral and osteochondral defects affect a large number of people in which treatment options are currently limited. Due to its ability to mimic the natural nanofibrous structure of cartilage, this current in vitro study aimed at introducing a new scaffold, called XanoMatrix™, for cartilage regeneration. In addition, this same scaffold is introduced here as a new substrate onto which to study chondrocyte functions. Current studies on chondrocyte functions are limited due to nonbiologically inspired cell culture substrates. With its polyethylene terephthalate and cellulose acetate composition, good mechanical properties and nanofibrous structure resembling an extracellular matrix, XanoMatrix offers an ideal surface for chondrocyte growth and proliferation. This current study demonstrated that the XanoMatrix scaffolds promote chondrocyte growth and proliferation as compared with the Corning and Falcon surfaces normally used for chondrocyte cell culture. The XanoMatrix scaffolds also have greater hydrophobicity, three-dimensional surface area, and greater tensile strength, making them ideal candidates for alternative treatment options for chondral and osteochondral defects as well as cell culture substrates to study chondrocyte functions.

Keywords: chondrocytes, XanoMatrix™, cell culture, substrates, biomimetic scaffolds

Introduction

People of all ages are affected by joint pain due to chondral and osteochondral defects.1 These problems are often triggered by cartilage lesions caused by trauma or due to age-related degeneration.2 Although many therapeutic and surgical techniques are used to treat this affliction, there is no optimal solution due to the limited vascularity and nonregenerative nature of this tissue.36 It is clear that new biomaterials are badly needed, which possess unprecedented abilities to promote cartilage cell functions.

Existing options include symptom management by chondrocyte transplantation to the cartilage lesion initiating native repair processes, but that often leads to the formation of a soft hyaline-like tissue with suboptimum mechanical properties.7 Also, factors such as limited transplant sites and donor site morbidity lead to various other complications, including bleeding, infection, inflammation, and chronic pain. Collagen I, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid-based scaffolds and gels have proven to be good carriers for chondrocytes.813 These scaffolds often promote the release of certain cytokines and growth factors from cells that promote the healing and regeneration of cartilage lesions.14 However, they have the disadvantage of poor mechanical properties and fast degradation, thus, they are not a stable platform for cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix generation and deposition.7,15

The current study introduces a brand-new scaffold for cartilage regeneration (termed XanoMatrix™) for enhancing the growth and proliferation of chondrocytes and the deposition of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins while possessing appropriate mechanical properties. XanoMatrix is currently made with biocompatible materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and cellulose acetate (CA). PET, also known as Dacron®, has been widely used as a prosthetic vascular graft material, and has excellent mechanical strength and good biocompatibility. CA is an industrially important cellulose ester with good mechanical and wetting properties. CA nanofibers have also increasingly been used in tissue engineering. XanoMatrix scaffolds offer the advantage of mimicking the natural cell growth environment while combining the advantage of nanofibered tortuous beds and supports. Moreover, XanoMatrix scaffolds can be easily cut into desired cartilage defects at the site of surgery. The objective of this in vitro study was to determine for the first time the cytocompatibility properties of XanoMatrix for cartilage applications and assess their use as suitable cell culture inserts for chondrocyte research. Traditional cell culture dishes are polymers which do not resemble the structure of cartilage and, thus, results (such as chondrocyte signaling pathways) obtained with such materials should be suspect.

Materials

XanoMatrix scaffolds were fabricated by Xanofi (Raleigh, NC, USA) by XanoShear technology. These scaffolds were then placed into 96-well plates and chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation were studied over a period of 7 days as described in the methods section. Sterile traditional plasma-treated polystyrene cell culture dishes were obtained from Corning and Falcon (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for comparative analysis.

Methods

Cell culture

Human chondrocytes (C-12750) obtained from PromoCell (Heidelberg, Germany) were cultured in chondrocyte basal media (C-27111) and a chondrocyte growth media supplement mix (C-39635) with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin (HyClone; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The samples were sterilized with 70% ethanol for 20 minutes and then rinsed thrice with phosphate-buffered saline. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assays were used to determine cell adhesion and proliferation after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. The cells were seeded at 5,000 cells/cm2 for the proliferation assays. The media was changed every other day. The MTS (CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay, G3581 Promega Corporation, Fitchburg, WI, USA) reagent (1:5 ratio with cell culture media) was added to each well and was incubated for 3 hours on the day of the measurement. Absorbance from each well was measured by a SpectraMax M3 (MT05412; Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) at 490 nm and a color change from pink to dark brown was seen. Northeastern University Institutional Review board approved the use of human cells during this research.

Confocal microscopy

The data gathered by the MTS assays were verified using confocal microscopy after fixing the cells after 5 days with glutaraldehyde followed by successive dehydration with 50%, 70%, 90%, and 100% ethanol and then staining with 20 nm SYTO9 dye.

Surface characterization

Contact angle analysis

Wettability of the samples was determined using the Pioneer (Succasunna, NJ, USA) contact angle 300 goniometer. The tests were performed using distilled water.

Scanning electron microscopy

A Hitachi 4800-S (Tokyo, Japan) scanning electron microscopy with a voltage of 5.0 kV and a magnification of ×250 was used to visualize the surfaces of the samples.

Mechanical tensile testing

Mechanical tensile testing was performed using a uniaxial tensile tester equipped with a 10 lb load cell and material analysis software (ADMET Materials Testing Systems, Norwood, MA, USA). Samples were cut into 10×30 mm rectangular strips and secured with grips, such that the initial gauge length was 10 mm. The grips were moved apart at a rate of 0.1 mm/s at room temperature to simulate biological conditions. This arrangement was used to obtain stress–strain curves, as well as the elastic modulus, material elongation, and maximum load endured for each sample.

Statistics

All experiments were conducted in triplicate and repeated at least three times each. A Student’s t-test was used to determine whether the differences in cell numbers over the different time periods were significant.

Results and discussion

In this study, CA- and PET-based nanofibrous scaffolds were used to test the adhesion and proliferation of chondrocytes over a period of 7 days. The scaffolds were subjected to contact angle analysis where it was seen that the XanoMatrix surface was more hydrophobic as compared with traditional Corning and Falcon cell culture surfaces (Figure 1). The contact angles were: Corning (90.51°), Falcon (88.371°), and XanoMatrix (122.8°).

Figure 1 Contact angle images of the surfaces of (A) Corning (90.51°), (B) Falcon (88.371°), and (C) XanoMatrix™ (122.8°).

The surface of the scaffold was also visualized using scanning electron microscopy and the presence of a three-dimensional, fibrous, extracellular matrix-like structure was observed as shown in Figure 2. The scaffold was subjected to tensile testing and the data obtained showed that the maximum load that the scaffold could withstand without breaking was 17.4652 N and the modulus of elasticity was found to be 5.0875×108 Pa. The extension at the end of test was observed to be 1.9204 mm as shown in Figure 3. For normal human cartilage, the Young’s modulus at the microscale varies in a narrow size range of 0.6–0.7MPa.11 For nanoscale measurements, this value varies during the loading process almost for an order of magnitude from 0.5 MPa to 1.8MPa.11 Even though the XanoMatrix scaffold can bear more tensile stress than normal cartilage, the increased growth of chondrocytes on the surface as compared with normal cell culture choices (such as Corning and Falcon) and its natural extracellular matrix-like structure still make it a suitable choice for performing in vitro experiments where cartilage tissue is concerned.

Figure 2 Scanning electron microscopy images of the surfaces of (A) Corning, (B) Falcon, and (C) XanoMatrix™. Scale bar =500 μm.

Figure 3 Graph depicting the stress developed in a XanoMatrix™ material when applying a constantly increasing load.

The data obtained from the cell adhesion and proliferation assays showed that there was increased chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on the XanoMatrix surface as compared with the Corning and Falcon petri dishes as shown in Figure 4. Specifically, there was a fivefold increase in cell density from day 1 to day 7 on the XanoMatrix surfaces and the cell population almost doubled between day 1 and day 3. Confocal microscopy was used to obtain a closer look at the interaction between cells and the scaffold as shown in Figure 5. The cells aligned along the fibers as shown in the figure also resembles natural cartilage. An image of the scaffold without cells was used as reference. Because of all these properties observed, it was concluded that this surface is desirable and deserves further consideration for cartilage applications. Moreover, the results from the study show that the XanoMatrix could be a more suitable substrate for chondrocyte studies than typical cell culture substrates, improving fundamental studies on chondrocyte cell biology.

Figure 4 Chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on Corning, Falcon, and XanoMatrix™ surfaces over different time periods.
Notes: Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean; N=3. *P<0.05 as compared with day 1 of chondrocyte growth on the XanoMatrix surface; **P<0.01 as compared with day 3 of chondrocyte growth on the XanoMatrix surface; ***P<0.05 as compared with day 5 of chondrocyte growth on the XanoMatrix surface; and #P<0.05 as compared with day 5 of chondrocyte growth on the Corning and Falcon surfaces.

Figure 5 Confocal images of the (A) XanoMatrix™ surface without cells and (B) the XanoMatrix surface with chondrocytes at day 5 at ×40 magnification.
Note: Scale bar =16 μm.

Conclusion

Cartilage-associated defects are difficult to treat and the search for an ideal biomaterial scaffold is a pressing issue. The current study shows that XanoMatrix scaffolds with their composition, structure, and mechanical properties offer a great surface for chondrocyte growth and proliferation and hence should be used for in vitro studies involving chondral and osteochondral defects.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank Xanofi for providing all the material and Northeastern University for funding.

Disclosure

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


References

1.

Klangjorhor J, Phitak T, Pruksakorn D, Pothacharoen P, Kongtawelert P. Comparison of growth factor adsorbed scaffold and conventional scaffold with growth factor supplemented media for primary human articular chondrocyte 3D culture. BMC Biotechnol. 2014;14:108.

2.

Ueblacker P, Wagner B, Vogt S, et al. In vivo analysis of retroviral gene transfer to chondrocytes within collagen scaffolds for the treatment of osteochondral defects. Biomaterials. 2007;28(30):4480–4487.

3.

Jia L, Duan Z, Fan D, Mi Y, Hui J, Chang L. Human-like collagen/nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds for the culture of chondrocytes. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013;33(2):727–734.

4.

Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Lindahl A. Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation: results at two to ten years. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003; 85-A(Suppl 2):17–24.

5.

Aigner T, Kim HA, Roach HI. Apoptosis in osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2004;30:639–653.

6.

Peretti GM, Xu JW, Bonassar LJ, Kirchhoff CH, Yaremchuk MJ, Randolph MA. Review of injectable cartilage engineering using fibrin gel in mice and swine models. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:1151–1168.

7.

Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L. Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(14):889–895.

8.

Nürnberger S, Meyer C, Ponomarev I, et al. Equine articular chondrocytes on MACT scaffolds for cartilage defect treatment. Anat Histol Embryol. 2013;42(5):332–343.

9.

Huard J, Li Y, Peng H, Fu FH. Gene therapy and tissue engineering for sports medicine. J Gene Med. 2003;5(2):93–108.

10.

Moutos F, Freed LE, Guilak F. A biomimetic three-dimensional woven composite scaffold for functional tissue engineering of cartilage. Nat Mater. 2007;6:162–167.

11.

Raghunath J, Rollo J, Sales KM, Butler PE, Seifalian AM. Biomaterials and scaffold design: key to tissue-engineering cartilage. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2007;46:73–84.

12.

Shortkroff S, Yates K. Alteration of matrix glycosaminoglycans diminishes articular chondrocytes’ response to a canonical Wnt signal. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2007;15:147–154.

13.

Steinert A, Ghivizzani SC, Rethwilm A, Tuan RS, Evans CH, Nöth U. Major biological obstacles for persistent cell-based regeneration of articular cartilage. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(3):213.

14.

Gough JE, Scotchford CA, Downes S. Cytotoxicity of glutaraldehyde crosslinked collagen/poly(vinyl alcohol) films is by the mechanism of apoptosis. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;61(1):121–130.

15.

Wakitani S, Kawaguchi A, Tokuhara Y, Takaoka K. Present status of and future direction for articular cartilage repair. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26(2):115–122.

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF] 

 

Other articles by this author:

Electrostatic interactions between polyglutamic acid and polylysine yields stable polyion complex micelles for deoxypodophyllotoxin delivery

Wang Y, Huang L, Shen Y, Tang L, Sun R, Shi D, Webster TJ, Tu J, Sun C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:7963-7977

Published Date: 30 October 2017

Antibacterial properties of PEKK for orthopedic applications

Wang M, Bhardwaj G, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:6471-6476

Published Date: 5 September 2017

Intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles in macrophages: intracellular uptake, exocytosis, and intercellular transport

Jiang LQ, Wang TY, Webster TJ, Duan HJ, Qiu JY, Zhao ZM, Yin XX, Zheng CL

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:6383-6398

Published Date: 31 August 2017

Elastic liposomes as novel carriers: recent advances in drug delivery

Hussain A, Singh S, Sharma D, Webster TJ, Shafaat K, Faruk A

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:5087-5108

Published Date: 17 July 2017

A review of fibrin and fibrin composites for bone tissue engineering

Noori A, Ashrafi SJ, Vaez-Ghaemi R, Hatamian-Zaremi A, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:4937-4961

Published Date: 12 July 2017

Two-dimensional collagen-graphene as colloidal templates for biocompatible inorganic nanomaterial synthesis

Kumari D, Sheikh L, Bhattacharya S, Webster TJ, Nayar S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:3605-3616

Published Date: 10 May 2017

A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine

Jahangirian H, Lemraski EG, Webster TJ, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Abdollahi Y

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:2957-2978

Published Date: 12 April 2017

Tat-functionalized liposomes for the treatment of meningitis: an in vitro study

Bartomeu Garcia C, Shi D, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:3009-3021

Published Date: 12 April 2017

Shape-dependent antibacterial effects of non-cytotoxic gold nanoparticles

Penders J, Stolzoff M, Hickey DJ, Andersson M, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:2457-2468

Published Date: 29 March 2017

Doxorubicin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles coated with chitosan/alginate by layer by layer technology for antitumor applications

Chai F, Sun L, He X, Li J, Liu Y, Xiong F, Ge L, Webster TJ, Zheng C

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:1791-1802

Published Date: 3 March 2017

Decreased bacterial growth on titanium nanoscale topographies created by ion beam assisted evaporation

Stolzoff M, Burns JE, Aslani A, Tobin EJ, Nguyen C, De La Torre N, Golshan NH, Ziemer KS, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017, 12:1161-1169

Published Date: 9 February 2017

Optimizing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug carriers using an in vitro blood–brain barrier model

Shi D, Mi G, Bhattacharya S, Nayar S, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016, 11:5371-5379

Published Date: 17 October 2016

XanoMatrix surfaces as scaffolds for mesenchymal stem cell culture and growth

Bhardwaj G, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016, 11:2655-2661

Published Date: 7 June 2016

The role of surfactants in the formulation of elastic liposomal gels containing a synthetic opioid analgesic

Singh S, Vardhan H, Kotla NG, Maddiboyina B, Sharma D, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016, 11:1475-1482

Published Date: 8 April 2016

A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil

Singh S, Kotla NG, Tomar S, Maddiboyina B, Webster TJ, Sharma D, Sunnapu O

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:7175-7182

Published Date: 23 November 2015

Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels

Wang Q, Larese-Casanova P, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:2885-2894

Published Date: 13 April 2015

Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA

Asiri AM, Marwani HM, Khan SB, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:89-96

Published Date: 17 December 2014

Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

MacMillan AK, Lamberti FV, Moulton JN, Geilich BM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:5627-5637

Published Date: 2 December 2014

Greater cardiomyocyte density on aligned compared with random carbon nanofibers in polymer composites

Asiri AM, Marwani HM, Khan SB, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:5533-5539

Published Date: 28 November 2014

Lubricin as a novel nanostructured protein coating to reduce fibroblast density

Aninwene II GE, Yang Z, Ravi V, Jay GD, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3131-3135

Published Date: 25 June 2014

Novel nano-rough polymers for cartilage tissue engineering

Balasundaram G, Storey DM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1845-1853

Published Date: 15 April 2014

Colloidal graphite/graphene nanostructures using collagen showing enhanced thermal conductivity

Bhattacharya S, Dhar P, Das SK, Ganguly R, Webster TJ, Nayar S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1287-1298

Published Date: 10 March 2014

Novel kojic acid-polymer-based magnetic nanocomposites for medical applications

Hussein-Al-Ali SH, El Zowalaty ME, Hussein MZ, Ismail M, Dorniani D, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:351-362

Published Date: 7 January 2014

Greater fibroblast proliferation on an ultrasonicated ZnO/PVC nanocomposite material

Maschhoff PM, Geilich BM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:257-263

Published Date: 28 December 2013

Nanostructured polyurethane-poly-lactic- co-glycolic acid scaffolds increase bladder tissue regeneration: an in vivo study

Yao C, Hedrick M, Pareek G, Renzulli J, Haleblian G, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:3285-3296

Published Date: 28 August 2013

Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

Weng L, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:1773-1781

Published Date: 6 May 2013

Nano-BaSO4: a novel antimicrobial additive to pellethane

Aninwene II GE, Stout D, Yang Z, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:1197-1205

Published Date: 22 March 2013

Reduced adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to ZnO/PVC nanocomposites

Geilich BM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:1177-1184

Published Date: 21 March 2013

Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

Crear J, Kummer KM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:995-1001

Published Date: 7 March 2013

Comparison study of ferrofluid and powder iron oxide nanoparticle permeability across the blood–brain barrier

Hoff D, Sheikh L, Bhattacharya S, Nayar S, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:703-710

Published Date: 13 February 2013

Increased healthy osteoblast to osteosarcoma density ratios on specific PLGA nanopatterns

Wang Y, Zhang L, Sun L, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:159-166

Published Date: 7 January 2013

Mechanisms of greater cardiomyocyte functions on conductive nanoengineered composites for cardiovascular applications

Stout DA, Yoo J, Noemi Santiago-Miranda A, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5653-5669

Published Date: 13 November 2012

Cytotoxicity of selenium nanoparticles in rat dermal fibroblasts

Ramos JF, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:3907-3914

Published Date: 23 July 2012

Decreased Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic airway model

Machado MC, Tarquinio KM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:3741-3750

Published Date: 19 July 2012

Carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells promotes recovery from stroke

Moon SU, Kim J, Bokara KK, Kim JY, Khang D, Webster TJ, Lee JE

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:2751-2765

Published Date: 1 June 2012

Erratum

Aninwene G II , Yao C, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:1573-1574

Published Date: 22 March 2012

Fructose-enhanced reduction of bacterial growth on nanorough surfaces

Durmus NG, Taylor EN, Inci F, Kummer KM, Tarquinio KM, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:537-545

Published Date: 1 February 2012

Reduced adhesion of macrophages on anodized titanium with select nanotube surface features

Rajyalakshmi A, Ercan B, Balasubramanian K, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1765-1771

Published Date: 23 August 2011

Selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth

Tran PA, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1553-1558

Published Date: 29 July 2011

Reducing infections through nanotechnology and nanoparticles

Taylor E, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1463-1473

Published Date: 13 July 2011

Self-assembled rosette nanotubes encapsulate and slowly release dexamethasone

Chen Y, Song S, Yan Z, Fenniri H, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1035-1044

Published Date: 18 May 2011

Silver nanoparticle toxicity in Drosophila: size does matter

Deborah J Gorth, David M Rand, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:343-350

Published Date: 11 February 2011

Anodized 20 nm diameter nanotubular titanium for improved bladder stent applications

Ece Alpaslan, Batur Ercan, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:219-225

Published Date: 25 January 2011

Self-assembled rosette nanotubes for incorporating hydrophobic drugs in physiological environments

Shang Song, Yupeng Chen, Zhimin Yan, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:101-107

Published Date: 10 January 2011

Greater osteoblast and endothelial cell adhesion on nanostructured polyethylene and titanium

Theresa Raimondo, Sabrina Puckett, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:647-652

Published Date: 3 September 2010

Differential effects of nanoselenium doping on healthy and cancerous osteoblasts in coculture on titanium

Phong A Tran, Love Sarin, Robert H Hurt, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:351-358

Published Date: 10 May 2010

Decreased lung carcinoma cell density on select polymer nanometer surface features for lung replacement therapies

Lijuan Zhang, Young Wook Chun, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:269-275

Published Date: 20 April 2010

Bactericidal effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus

Nhiem Tran, Aparna Mir, Dhriti Mallik, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:277-283

Published Date: 14 April 2010

Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives

Riaz Gillani, Batur Ercan, Alex Qiao, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:1-11

Published Date: 17 December 2009

The use of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for prosthetic biofilm prevention

Erik N Taylor, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2009, 4:145-152

Published Date: 12 August 2009

Enhanced endothelial cell functions on rosette nanotube-coated titanium vascular stents

Eli Fine, Lijie Zhang, Hicham Fenniri, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2009, 4:91-97

Published Date: 17 April 2009

Greater osteoblast proliferation on anodized nanotubular titanium upon electrical stimulation

Batur Ercan, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:477-485

Published Date: 5 December 2008

Decreased astroglial cell adhesion and proliferation on zinc oxide nanoparticle polyurethane composites

Justin T Seil, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:523-531

Published Date: 5 December 2008

Influence of nanophase titania topography on bacterial attachment and metabolism

Margaret R Park, Michelle K Banks, Bruce Applegate, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:497-504

Published Date: 5 December 2008

Enhanced osteoblast adhesion on nanostructured selenium compacts for anti-cancer orthopedic applications

Phong Tran, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:391-396

Published Date: 12 September 2008

Biomimetic helical rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for improving orthopedic implants

Lijie Zhang, Yupeng Chen, Jose Rodriguez, Hicham Fenniri, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:323-333

Published Date: 12 September 2008

Nano rough micron patterned titanium for directing osteoblast morphology and adhesion

Sabrina Puckett, Rajesh Pareta, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:229-241

Published Date: 6 June 2008

Enhanced osteoblast adhesion to drug-coated anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces

George E Aninwene II, Chang Yao, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:257-264

Published Date: 6 June 2008

Enhanced endothelial cell density on NiTi surfaces with sub-micron to nanometer roughness

Harry D Samaroo, Jing Lu, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:75-82

Published Date: 7 March 2008

The influence of nano MgO and BaSO4 particle size additives on properties of PMMA bone cement

Alyssa Ricker, Peishan Liu-Snyder, Thomas J Webster

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2008, 3:125-132

Published Date: 7 March 2008

Readers of this article also read:

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010