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Engineering of solidified glyburide nanocrystals for tablet formulation via loading of carriers: downstream processing, characterization, and bioavailability

Authors Ali HSM, Hanafy AF, Alqurshi A

Received 19 November 2018

Accepted for publication 29 January 2019

Published 13 March 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1893—1906


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo

Hany SM Ali,1,2 Ahmed F Hanafy,1,3 Abdulmalik Alqurshi1

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 3Research and Development Department, Al Andalous Pharmaceutical Industries, Cairo, Egypt

Introduction: Presenting poorly water-soluble drugs as nanoparticles has shown to be an effective technique in enhancing drug dissolution rate, intrinsic solubility, and thus oral bioavailability. Nevertheless, working with nanoparticles introduces many challenges, one of which is their physical instability. Formulating nanoparticles into a solid dosage form may overcome such challenges and thus unlock the potential benefits of nanosizing.
Methods: The current work investigates the possibility of developing a novel solid dosage form, with enhanced dissolution rate, whereby nanocrystals (~400 nm) of the class II Biopharmaceutical Classification System drug, glyburide (GBD) were fabricated through combined precipitation and homogenization procedures. Using a novel, but scalable, spraying technique, GBD nanocrystals were loaded onto commonly used tablet fillers, water-soluble lactose monohydrate (LAC), and water insoluble microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Conventional tableting processes were then used to convert the powders generated into a tablet dosage form.
Results: Studies of redispersibility showed considerable preservation of size characteristics of GBD nanocrystals during downstream processing with redispersibility indices of 105 and 118 for GBD–LAC and GBD–MCC, respectively. Characterization by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the powders generated powders contained nanosized crystals of GBD which adhered to carrier surfaces. Powder flowability was characterized using Hausner ratio (HR) and Carr’s index (CI). GBD–LAC-loaded particles exhibited poor flowability with CI and HR of 37.5% and 1.60, respectively, whilst GBD–MCC particles showed a slightly improved flowability with CI and HR of 26.47% and 1.36, respectively. The novel tablet dosage form met US Pharmacopeia specifications, including drug content, hardness, and friability.
Conclusion: Higher dissolution rates were observed from the nanocrystal-based tablets compared to the microsized and commercial drug formulations. Moreover, the novel nanocrystal tablet dosage forms showed enhanced in vivo performance with area under the plasma concentration–time curve in the first 24 hours values 1.97 and 2.24 times greater than that of marketed tablets.

Keywords: glyburide, nanocrystals, downstream, tablet, bioavailability, solidification, redispersibility

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