Engeletin Protects Against TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Chondrocytes and Alleviates Osteoarthritis in vivo
Authors Wang H, Jiang Z, Pang Z, Qi G, Hua B, Yan Z, Yuan H
Received 13 December 2020
Accepted for publication 10 February 2021
Published 9 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 745—760
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ning Quan
Hao Wang,1,* Zengxin Jiang,1,* Zhiying Pang,1 Guobin Qi,1 Bingxuan Hua,1 Zuoqin Yan,1 Hengfeng Yuan2
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Zuoqin Yan
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 13818009668
Email [email protected]
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 600 Yishan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200233, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 13917398796
Email [email protected]
Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease characterized by pain and impaired joint functions. Engeletin is a natural compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on other diseases, but the effect of engeletin on OA has not been evaluated. This study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of engeletin on cartilage and the underlying mechanisms.
Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from rat knee cartilage, and TNF-α was used to simulate OA in vitro. After treatment with engeletin, the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components (collagen II and aggrecan) and matrix catabolic enzymes (MMP9 and MMP3) was determined by Western blotting and qPCR. Chondrocyte apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/PI and flow cytometry. Apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3) were evaluated by Western blotting. The mitochondrial membrane potential of chondrocytes was measured with JC-1, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined with DCFH-DA. Changes in signaling pathways (Nrf2, NF-κB and MAPK) were evaluated by Western blotting. In vivo, anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was used to induce the rat OA model, and engeletin was administered intraarticularly. The therapeutic effect of engeletin was analyzed by histopathological analysis.
Results: Pretreatment with engeletin alleviated TNF-α-induced inhibition of ECM components (collagen II and aggrecan) and upregulation of matrix catabolic enzymes (MMP9 and MMP3). Engeletin ameliorated chondrocyte apoptosis by inhibiting Bax expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression. Engeletin maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential of chondrocytes and scavenged intracellular ROS by activating the Nrf2 pathway. The NF-κB and MAPK pathways were inhibited by treatment with engeletin. In vivo, ACLT-induced knee OA in rats was alleviated by intraarticular injection of engeletin.
Conclusion: Engeletin ameliorated OA in vitro and in vivo. It may be a potential therapeutic drug for OA.
Keywords: engeletin, osteoarthritis, OA, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential
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