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Endovascular stent-graft placement for vascular failure of the thoracic aorta

Authors Yoshihiko Kurimoto, Kiyofumi Morishita, Yasufumi Asai

Published 15 June 2006 Volume 2006:2(2) Pages 109—116

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Yoshihiko Kurimoto1, Kiyofumi Morishita2, Yasufumi Asai1

1Department of Traumatology and Critical Care Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan

Abstract: It still remains undetermined whether endovascular stent-graft placement (ESGP) is the optimal initial treatment for elective cases of thoracic aortic disease because of unknown long-term results. However, it is also recognized that ESGP contributes to better outcome as an initial treatment for aortic emergency, such as rupture, aortic injury, and complicated acute type B aortic dissection. Despite the fact that most patients are elderly, early mortality rates of ESGP are reportedly around 10% in cases of ruptured degenerative thoracic aortic aneurysm. Postoperative morbidity is also superior in ESGP compared with conventional open repair. Postoperative paraplegia has rarely occurred with ESGP. In cases of blunt aortic injury (BAI), other complications may also be present because of other serious injuries. ESGP has changed the surgical strategy for BAI and partially resolved some of the clinical dilemmas. Early mortality rate is almost zero when a stent graft can be placed before re-rupture. While BAI is a very good indication for ESGP, young patients need careful management and attention because of the unknown long-term outcome. In cases of complicated acute type B aortic dissection, the two main determinants of death, shock from rupture and visceral ischemia, could be managed by ESGP with or without conventional endovascular interventions. Recent reports disclosed less than 10% early mortality with ESGP for complicated acute aortic dissection. Even if the possibility of endotension remains, ESPG seems to be beneficial for these critical patients as the preferable initial treatment. The importance of close follow-up should be stressed to avoid some devastating late complications following ESGP.

Keywords: stent graft, ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm, aortic injury, aortic dissection, organ ischemia

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