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Emphysematous cystitis: review of current literature, diagnosis and management challenges

Authors Fumeo M, Manfredi S, Volta A

Received 29 March 2019

Accepted for publication 5 July 2019

Published 30 July 2019 Volume 2019:10 Pages 77—83

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S210463

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo


Video abstract presented by Martina Fumeo.

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Martina Fumeo, Sabrina Manfredi, Antonella Volta

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy

Abstract: Emphysematous cystitis (EC) is a rare disease in human as well as in veterinary medicine; in both it is defined as an uncommon form of complicated urinary tract infection (UTI), characterized by the presence of gas within the bladder wall and lumen. While female dogs are at increased risk of developing an UTI, patients with EC are not subject to gender or age predisposition and may present with variable clinical manifestations. Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears as the most common risk factor for the development of EC, but many other underlying conditions have been mentioned in literature and should be taken into consideration. In case of EC, Escherichia coli appears to be the most common pathogen isolated from urine cultures. A conclusive diagnosis of EC requires necessarily the recourse to imaging methods, such as abdominal radiography and ultrasonography. An early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy, consisting in protracted antibiotic treatment associated with control over underlying diseases, could lead to avoid surgical intervention.

Keywords: emphysematous cystitis dog, dog, cat, gas, urinary, bladder, infection


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