Back to Browse Journals » Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy » Volume 3

Emerging role of brain metastases in the prognosis of breast cancer patients


Hambrecht A, Jandial R, Neman J

Published 10 August 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 79—91


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Amanda Hambrecht1,2, Rahul Jandial2, Josh Neman2
1Department of Biology, University of Southern California; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Cancer Center, CA, USA

Abstract: Cancer starts with one rogue cell. Through mutations and genomic alterations, the cell acquires specific and stem cell-like characteristics necessary for invasion of a distant organ and ultimately metastasis. Metastatic brain cancer is a particularly formidable disease because of its poor prognosis and the highly resistant nature of the tumor to chemotherapy. Although several types of primary tumors have a tendency to metastasize to the brain, the incidence of brain metastases has increased dramatically in some subsets of breast cancer patients. Several conventional treatments are available, but success is limited and often short-lived. Given that no standard treatment options exist, there is a significant need to investigate the biology of these clinically recalcitrant tumors.

Keywords: metastasis, breast cancer, blood-brain barrier, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mesenchymal-epithelial transition

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML] 


Other article by this author:

Decreasing glioma recurrence through adjuvant cancer stem cell inhibition

Josh Neman, Rahul Jandial

Biologics: Targets and Therapy 2010, 4:157-162

Published Date: 22 June 2010

Readers of this article also read:

Novel covalent modification of human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and potentiation of crizotinib-mediated inhibition of ALK activity by BNP7787

Parker AR, Petluru PN, Nienaber VL, Zhao M, Ayala PY, Badger J, Chie-Leon B, Sridhar V, Logan C, Kochat H, Hausheer FH

OncoTargets and Therapy 2015, 8:375-383

Published Date: 4 February 2015

Continuation of bevacizumab and addition of hormone therapy following weekly paclitaxel therapy in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer

Redondo A, Martínez V, Zamora P, Castelo B, Pinto A, Cruz P, Higuera O, Mendiola M, Hardisson D, Espinosa E

OncoTargets and Therapy 2014, 7:2175-2181

Published Date: 27 November 2014

European survey on the opinion and use of micronutrition in age-related macular degeneration: 10 years on from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

Aslam T, Delcourt C, Holz F, García-Layana A, Leys A, Silva RM, Souied E

Clinical Ophthalmology 2014, 8:2045-2053

Published Date: 10 October 2014

Dormancy in breast cancer

Banys M, Hartkopf AD, Krawczyk N, Kaiser T, Meier-Stiegen F, Fehm T, Neubauer H

Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy 2012, 4:183-191

Published Date: 5 December 2012


Menis J, Twelves C

Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy 2012, 4:1-2

Published Date: 30 December 2011

Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-mediated surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity assay

Wang S, Wen S, Shen M, Guo R, Cao X, Wang J, Shi X

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:3449-3459

Published Date: 20 December 2011

Role of trastuzumab in the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer

Andrea Milani, Filippo Montemurro, Luisa Gioeni, et al

Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy 2010, 2:93-109

Published Date: 24 November 2010

Prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients

Pongsathorn Gojaseni, Angkana Phaopha, Worawon Chailimpamontree, et al

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2010, 6:157-165

Published Date: 11 March 2010

Topical thrombin preparations and their use in cardiac surgery

Brianne L Dunn, Walter E Uber, John S Ikonomidis

Open Access Surgery 2009, 2:15-34

Published Date: 23 October 2009