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Emerging options for the treatment of melanoma – focus on ipilimumab

Authors Roddie C, Peggs K

Received 1 February 2013

Accepted for publication 1 May 2013

Published 17 March 2014 Volume 2014:3 Pages 67—78


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Claire Roddie, Karl S Peggs

UCL Cancer Institute, Department of Hematology, London, UK

Abstract: Ipilimumab is a fully human immunoglobulin subclass G1 anticytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-antigen-4 monoclonal antibody. It has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency for use in advanced melanoma following clear evidence of survival benefit in randomized Phase III studies. It is also under investigation as a treatment for other solid tumors such as renal cell, lung, and prostate cancers. The purported mechanism of antitumor activity of ipilimumab is through T-cell activation, and the side effect profile reflects this. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) affect 60% of treated patients and 15% are defined as severe. Fortunately, most irAEs are reversible with early diagnosis and correct management. FDA approval of ipilimumab is dependent on the careful execution of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, with the aim of increasing awareness amongst patients and clinicians of the immunological risks of treatment, and providing algorithms for management of irAEs as they develop. Ipilimumab is one of the first immunotherapies to become widely available in the setting of solid tumors, and ongoing research aims to elucidate optimal dosing, optimal scheduling, and expanded access to ipilimumab as an adjuvant or maintenance therapy where appropriate. The identification of clinical correlates or biomarkers to identify those likely to benefit from this high-cost therapy is a top priority.

Keywords: ipilimumab, cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-antigen-4, advanced melanoma, metastatic, overall survival

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