Emerging intravesical therapies for management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
Jeffrey J Tomaszewski, Marc C Smaldone
Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
Abstract: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the second most common urologic malignancy, and 70% of patients present with superficial or nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most effective agent for preventing disease recurrence, and the only therapy able to inhibit disease progression. However, recurrence rates as high as 30% and significant local and systemic toxicity have led to increased interest in alternative intravesical therapies. In patients refractory or intolerant to BCG, BCG-interferon α2b, gemcitabine, and anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, valrubicin) have demonstrated durable clinical responses. Phase I trials investigating alternative cytotoxic agents, such as apaziquone, taxanes (docetaxel, paclitaxel), and suramin are reporting promising data. Novel immunomodulating agents have demonstrated promise as efficacious alternatives in patients refractory to BCG. Optimization of existing chemotherapeutic regimens using hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy, magnetically-targeted carriers, and liposomes remains an area of active investigation. Despite enthusiasm for new intravesical agents, radical cystectomy remains the treatment of choice for patients with NMIBC who have failed intravesical therapy and selected patients with naïve T1 tumors and aggressive features. This report provides a comprehensive review of contemporary intravesical therapy for NMIBC and refractory NMIBC, with an emphasis on emerging agents and novel treatment modalities.
Keywords: transitional cell carcinoma, nonmuscle, invasive, intravesical therapy, BCG
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