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Emergence of a metalloproteinase/phospholipase A2 axis of systemic inflammation

Authors Fernandez-Patron C, Leung D

Received 9 May 2015

Accepted for publication 2 July 2015

Published 13 August 2015 Volume 2015:2 Pages 29—38


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor William Parks

Carlos Fernandez-Patron,1 Dickson Leung2

1Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Abstract: We review select aspects of the biology of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with a focus on the modulation of inflammatory responses by MMP-2. MMP-2 is a zinc- and calcium-dependent endoprotease with substrates including extracellular matrix proteins, vasoactive peptides, and chemokines. Humans and mice with MMP-2 deficiency exhibit a predominantly inflammatory phenotype. Recent research shows that MMP-2 deficient mice display elevated activity of a secreted phospholipase A2 in the heart. Additionally, MMP-2 deficient mice exhibit abnormally high prostaglandin E2 levels in various organs (ie, the heart, brain and liver), signs of inflammation and exacerbated lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. We briefly review the biology of sPLA2 enzymes to propose the existence of a heart-centric MMP-2/sPLA2 axis of systemic inflammation. Moreover, we postulate that PLA2 activation is induced by chemokines, whose ability to signal inflammation is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion by MMPs. Thus, genetic and pharmacologically induced MMP deficiencies can be expected to perturb PLA2-mediated inflammatory mechanisms.

Keywords: MMPs, inflammation, chemokines, secreted phospholipase A2

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