Electrospun Poly (Aspartic Acid)-Modified Zein Nanofibers for Promoting Bone Regeneration
Received 25 July 2019
Accepted for publication 13 November 2019
Published 2 December 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 9497—9512
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Yun Liu,1,* Ying-Ling Miao,2,* Feng Qin,1 Cen Cao,1 Xiao-Lin Yu,1 Yu-Han Wu,1 Tian-Lu Wang,1 Ruo-Gu Xu,1 Liu Zhao,3 Fan Wu,1 Zheng-Chuan Zhang,1 Jia-Min Yang,1 Yang Yang,1 Xin Xie,1 Li-Ming Zhang,2 Fei-Long Deng1
1Department of Oral Implantology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Li-Ming Zhang
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 135, Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 020-84112354
Department of Oral Implantology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 56, Lingyuan Xi Road, Guangzhou 510000, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 020-83863002
Background: Critical-sized bone defects raise great challenges. Zein is of interest for bone regeneration, but it has limited ability to stimulate cell proliferation. In this regard, a poly (aspartic acid) (PAsp)-zein hybrid is promising, as PAsp can promote rat bone marrow stromal cell (rBMSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. This research aimed to develop electrospun PAsp-modified zein nanofibers to realize critical-sized bone defects repair.
Methods: Three groups of PAsp-modified zein nanofibers were prepared, they were PAsp grafting percentages of 0% (zein), 5.32% (ZPAA-1), and 7.63% (ZPAA-2). Using rBMSCs as in vitro cell model and SD rats as in vivo animal model, fluorescence staining, SEM, CCK-8, ALP, ARS staining, μCT and histological analysis were performed to verify the biological and osteogenic activities for PAsp-modified zein nanofibers.
Results: As the Asp content increased from 0% to 7.63%, the water contact angle decreased from 129.8 ± 2.3° to 105.5 ± 2.5°. SEM, fluorescence staining and CCK-8 assay showed that ZPAA-2 nanofibers had a superior effect on rBMSCs spreading and proliferation than did zein and ZPAA-1 nanofibers, ALP activity and ARS staining showed that ZPAA-2 can improve rBMSCs osteogenic differentiation. In vivo osteogenic activities was evaluated by μCT analysis, HE, Masson and immunohistochemical staining, indicating accelerated bone formation in ZPAA-2 SD rats after 4 and 8 weeks treatment, with a rank order of ZPAA-2 > ZPAA-1 > zein group. Moreover, the semiquantitative results of the Masson staining revealed that the maturity of the new bone was higher in the ZPAA-2 group than in the other groups.
Conclusion: Electrospun PAsp-modified zein can provide a suitable microenvironment for osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs, as well as for bone regeneration; the optimal membrane appears to have a PAsp grafting percentage of 7.63%.
Keywords: electrospun, osteogenesis, poly (aspartic acid), zein
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