Efficacy of an equine joint supplement, and the synergistic effect of its active ingredients (chelated trace minerals and natural eggshell membrane), as demonstrated in equine, swine, and an osteoarthritis rat model
Authors Wedekind K, Coverdale J, Hampton T, Atwell C, Sorbert R, Lunnemann J, Harrell R, Greiner L, Keith N, Evans J, Zhao J, Knight C
Received 27 September 2014
Accepted for publication 17 November 2014
Published 20 January 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 13—27
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Peter Koulen
Karen J Wedekind,1 Josie A Coverdale,2 Thomas R Hampton,1 Cindy A Atwell,1 Roy H Sorbet,3 Jenea Lunnemann,1 Robert J Harrell,1 Laura Greiner,4 Nancy K Keith,5 Joseph L Evans,1 Junmei Zhao,1 Chris D Knight1
1Novus International, Inc., St Charles, MO, USA; 2Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 3Certus International, Inc., Chesterfield, MO, USA; 4Innovative Swine Solution, Carthage, IL, USA; 5Keith Associates, Springfield, MO, USA
Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an equine joint supplement STEADFAST® and/or its active components (Natural Eggshell Membrane [NEM®] and chelated trace minerals [CTM]) in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis or in a chemically induced osteoarthritis rat model. In addition, the efficacy of CTM vs inorganic trace minerals (ITM) (Zn, Mn, and Cu) in reducing culling rates in swine was evaluated.
Methods: Horse trial: 16 mature horses with existing lameness were fed test joint supplement or placebo for 42 d. Lameness (American Association Equine Practitioner scoring system), serum biomarkers (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide type II collagen [CTXII] and N-propeptide type IIA collagen [PIIANP]), and synovial fluid WBC were assessed biweekly. Rat trial: A chemically induced (monoiodoacetate [MIA]) osteoarthritis rat model was utilized. Rats were fed either negative control or joint supplement at 1% or 2% inclusion in Exp 1 (n=54) for 56 d. In Exp 2 (n=48), rats were fed control, NEM, CTM, or NEM + CTM for 42 d (28 d prefeed + Exp period). Rats were injected with MIA d29. Pain, knee swelling, and CTXII were measured post-MIA injection. Sow trial: Two farms with 6,400 sows each were fed ITM or 50:50 blend of ITM:CTM at equal TM levels for ~3 yr. Treatments were initiated at weaning through entry into the breeding herd. Sows remained on treatment until culled. Sow retention rate and reasons for removal were measured.
Results: In horse and rat trials, chondromodulating effects of the joint supplement were observed: increased cartilage synthesis (PIIANP) or decreased cartilage degradation (CTXII). CTM + NEM decreased pain, swelling, and CTXII, compared to control and/or CTM or NEM alone (P<0.05). Gilt and sow culling rates were reduced >30% with CTM supplementation (P<0.001).
Conclusion: CTM, NEM, and the joint supplement improved skeletal and joint health. Our studies demonstrate the importance of CTM for the prevention and treatment of lameness.
Keywords: lameness, monoiodoacetate, trace minerals, CTXII, PIIANP, rat, equine, swine
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