Efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in the management of dyslipidemia
Paolo Rubba, Gennaro Marotta, Marco Gentile
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University of Naples, Italy
Abstract: Rosuvastatin is a synthetic statin that represents an advance in the pharmacologic and clinical properties of statins. Relative to other statins, rosuvastatin possesses a greater number of binding interactions with HMG-CoA reductase and has a high affinity for the active site of the enzyme. As with other statins, serious adverse effects with rosuvastatin therapy are uncommon and primarily involve effects on the liver and skeletal muscle. The risk increases with increasing dosages and coadministration with other drugs interacting with the same metabolic pathway. The degree of LDL reduction is important to achieve the treatment goals suggested by international guidelines. Among the most potent statins, rosuvastatin is capable of getting the majority of patients to their LDL cholesterol goals. In addition, rosuvastatin has been found effective in reducing small-dense LDL, C-reactive protein and in increasing HDL cholesterol levels. Controlled clinical trials using vascular end-points have been performed. In particular, a study demonstrated that rosuvastatin therapy could slow progression and/or cause regression of carotid intima-media thickness over 2 years in middle-aged individuals with a low Framingham risk score (FRS) and mild to moderate subclinical atherosclerosis. A primary prevention study (JUPITER) was stopped before the programmed end of the study, because of excess benefit for high-risk individuals receiving rosuvastatin treatment. It is suggested that pronounced LDL reduction, in association with significant HDL cholesterol increase, are the bases of a marked preventive action of rosuvastatin. The results from JUPITER support the use of rosuvastatin for primary cardiovascular prevention, in overweight men and women, with near to normal LDL cholesterol and high CRP. There is now evidence of benefit from rosuvastatin treatment for a wide segment of the general population at intermediate cardiovascular risk. In absolute numbers, this segment represents the main source of cardiovascular events: on the basis of JUPITER results, it is expected that treatment target and potential candidates to statin therapy will be revaluated and redefined.
Keywords: cardiovascular prevention, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, vascular end-point, overweight
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