Efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate in patients with COPD by reversibility: pooled analysis of the GEM1 and GEM2 12-week studies
Received 10 November 2018
Accepted for publication 31 January 2019
Published 19 February 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 461—470
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Jill A Ohar,1 Alyssa Bowling,2 Thomas Goodin,2 Barry Price,2 Ayca Ozol-Godfrey,2 Sanjay Sharma,2 Shahin Sanjar2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marlborough, MA, USA
Purpose: Bronchodilator reversibility has been reported in patients with COPD, although correlations between reversibility and treatment response are unclear. The effect of reversibility on lung function, health status, and dyspnea was assessed in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD receiving glycopyrrolate (GLY) 15.6 µg twice daily vs placebo in the Glycopyrrolate Effect on syMptoms and lung function 1 and 2 (GEM1 and GEM2) replicate, 12-week, placebo-controlled studies.
Patients and methods: Reversibility was defined as a post-bronchodilator increase of ≥12% and ≥0.200 L in FEV1. FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0–12 h), trough FEV1, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, COPD Assessment Test (CAT™) score, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score, daily symptom scores, and rescue medication use were assessed by reversibility status. Incidences of adverse events and serious adverse events were also assessed.
Results: Data from 846 patients enrolled in GEM1 and GEM2 with known reversibility status were pooled for post hoc analysis. GLY significantly improved FEV1 AUC0–12 h, trough FEV1, SGRQ and CAT total scores, and rescue medication use compared with placebo in reversible and nonreversible patients. Significant improvements in TDI focal score and daily symptom scores with GLY over placebo were observed only among reversible patients. Improvements in FEV1 AUC0-12 h (0.165 vs 0.078 L; P<0.001) and trough FEV1 (0.173 vs 0.070 L; P<0.001) were clinically relevant (based on minimal clinically important differences) and significantly greater in reversible compared with nonreversible patients receiving GLY. The safety profile of GLY was not affected by reversibility status.
Conclusion: In this post hoc analysis, GLY was associated with significant improvements in lung function and patient-reported outcomes compared with placebo, mostly independent of reversibility status. In patients receiving GLY, improvements in lung function were greater in reversible compared with nonreversible patients. Reversibility status did not meaningfully impact the safety profile of GLY.
Keywords: bronchodilator, COPD, glycopyrrolate, reversibility
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