Back to Journals » Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management » Volume 14

Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract as an “add-on” treatment to metformin for patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot clinical study

Authors Aziz TA, Hussain SA, Mahwi TO, Ahmed ZA

Received 29 March 2018

Accepted for publication 16 May 2018

Published 11 July 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 1219—1226


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Tavga Ahmed Aziz,1 Saad Abdulrahman Hussain,2 Taha Othman Mahwi,3 Zheen Aorahman Ahmed1

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq

Background and aim: Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract has shown to be beneficial in experimental models of metabolic and inflammatory disorders such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MTS). The objective of this pilot clinical study was to evaluate the effects of GKB extract as an “add-on” treatment with metformin (Met) in MTS patients.
Patients and methods: We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical study in subjects with MTS. Forty patients completed the 90-day clinical trial and were randomly allocated to administer either GKB extract (120 mg capsule/day) or placebo (120 mg starch/day) as an add-on treatment with their currently used doses of Met for 90 days. During the study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), serum leptin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum glucose (FSG), insulin, insulin resistance (IR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid profile, and the inflammatory markers high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated.
Results: GKB extract significantly decreases HbA1c, FSG and insulin levels, IR, BMI, WC, VAI, serum leptin, and the inflammatory markers compared to baseline values. Simultaneously, GKB did not negatively affect the functions of the liver, kidney, and hematopoietic system.
Conclusion: The use of GKB extract as an adjuvant with Met was effective in improving the outcome of patients with MTS.

Keywords: Ginkgo biloba, metabolic syndrome, metformin, adiposity, insulin resistance, inflammation

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]