Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract as an “add-on” treatment to metformin for patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot clinical study
Received 29 March 2018
Accepted for publication 16 May 2018
Published 11 July 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 1219—1226
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh
Tavga Ahmed Aziz,1 Saad Abdulrahman Hussain,2 Taha Othman Mahwi,3 Zheen Aorahman Ahmed1
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq
Background and aim: Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract has shown to be beneficial in experimental models of metabolic and inflammatory disorders such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MTS). The objective of this pilot clinical study was to evaluate the effects of GKB extract as an “add-on” treatment with metformin (Met) in MTS patients.
Patients and methods: We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical study in subjects with MTS. Forty patients completed the 90-day clinical trial and were randomly allocated to administer either GKB extract (120 mg capsule/day) or placebo (120 mg starch/day) as an add-on treatment with their currently used doses of Met for 90 days. During the study, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), serum leptin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum glucose (FSG), insulin, insulin resistance (IR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid profile, and the inflammatory markers high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated.
Results: GKB extract significantly decreases HbA1c, FSG and insulin levels, IR, BMI, WC, VAI, serum leptin, and the inflammatory markers compared to baseline values. Simultaneously, GKB did not negatively affect the functions of the liver, kidney, and hematopoietic system.
Conclusion: The use of GKB extract as an adjuvant with Met was effective in improving the outcome of patients with MTS.
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba, metabolic syndrome, metformin, adiposity, insulin resistance, inflammation
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