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Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

Authors Mlalila N, Swai H, Kalombo L, Hilonga A

Received 1 August 2014

Accepted for publication 8 September 2014

Published 1 December 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 105—112

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S72083

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein


Nichrous Mlalila,1 Hulda Swai,2 Lonji Kalombo,2 Askwar Hilonga3

1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania

Abstract: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT) loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use.

Keywords: double emulsions, nanoparticles, pump rate, spray-drying, testosterone

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