Effects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Received 23 May 2019
Accepted for publication 17 September 2019
Published 14 October 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 2107—2115
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonio Brunetti
Fatemeh Ebrahimi,1,2 Amirhossein Sahebkar,3–5 Naheed Aryaeian,2 Naseh Pahlavani,6 Soudabeh Fallah,7 Nariman Moradi,8 Davoud Abbasi,9 Agha Fatemeh Hosseini10
1Skull Base Research Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran; 4Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 5Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 6Student Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 8Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; 9Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 10Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence: Naheed Aryaeian
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Hemmat Expressway, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemat Highway next to Milad Towe Tehran, Tehran 1449614535, Iran
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is accompanied by elevated inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia which all contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Saffron as a complementary medicine and source of antioxidants could play a role in alleviating diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of saffron supplementation as an adjunct therapy in T2D.
Patients and methods: This randomized controlled trial included 80 T2D patients with a mean age of 54.1 years. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to take either saffron tablets (100 mg/day; n=40) or placebo (n=40) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and after the intervention period to quantify glycemic factors, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Anthropometric indices and dietary intakes were also measured at baseline and at study end.
Results: Compared with placebo, saffron supplementation resulted in significant decreases in waist circumference (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (p=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in other indices, including anthropometric parameters, serum insulin, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity indices, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total antioxidant capacity, and tumor necrosis factor-α between the study groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Overall, 12 weeks of saffron supplementation in diabetic patients had beneficial effects on waist circumference and serum MDA levels. However, saffron did not influence other evaluated cardio metabolic risk markers in diabetic patients.
Keywords: crocus sativus, diabetes mellitus, type 2, dysglycemia, lipid profile, inflammation mediators
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