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Effects of CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on tamoxifen and its metabolites in Thai breast cancer patients

Authors Charoenchokthavee W, Areepium N, Panomvana D, Sriuranpong V

Received 26 October 2016

Accepted for publication 1 February 2017

Published 15 April 2017 Volume 2017:9 Pages 249—256


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pranela Rameshwar

Wanaporn Charoenchokthavee,1 Nutthada Areepium,2 Duangchit Panomvana,2 Virote Sriuranpong2

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University, 2Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, Thailand

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on the levels of tamoxifen (TAM) and its metabolites in the plasma of breast cancer patients. The protocol was designed to test the associations between CYP2D6, CYP3A5 genotypes and phenotypes (extensive metabolizer [EM], intermediate metabolizer [IM] and poor metabolizer [PM]) and TAM, N-desmethyl tamoxifen (NDMT), endoxifen (END) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) concentrations.
Patients and methods: One hundred and thirty-four Thai breast cancer patients from the Thai Tamoxifen Project undergoing TAM treatment who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited. Plasma samples were assessed for the concentrations of TAM and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography. The data are presented as actual values and metabolic ratios (MR). The hypotheses were tested using Kruskal–Wallis or Mann–Whitney U test, including the simple main effects analysis.
Results: The patients had stage 0–IV breast cancer. The mean age and body mass index were 51.6±11.6 years and 24.0±4.3, respectively. Also, 53.0% of them were premenopausal, 10.4% were perimenopausal and 36.6% were postmenopausal, while 23.1% were CYP2D6-EM/CYP3A5-EM and 20.9% carried only CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 incomplete alleles. The median concentrations of TAM, NDMT, END and 4OHT were 374.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 230.2) ng/mL, 1,064.9 (IQR 599.6) ng/mL, 54.5 (IQR 52.5) ng/mL and 5.0 (IQR 3.1) ng/mL, respectively. MR (TAM-NDMT) and MR (NDMT-END) were statistically different (p=0.013 and p=0.014, respectively), while MR (4OHT-END) was not statistically different within the CYP2D6 phenotype (p=0.594). MR (TAM-4OHT) was not statistically different within the CYP2D6 phenotype (p=0.079), but it was potentially different from CYP3A5-PM (p=0.056). None of the MR was statistically different within the CYP3A5 phenotype.
Conclusion: CYP2D6 polymorphisms appear to affect END concentration through an NDMT subpathway and potentially affect 4OHT concentrations through a 4OHT subpathway in CYP3A5-PM group.

Keywords: endoxifen, cytochrome P450, single nucleotide polymorphisms, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, human

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