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Effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on developing zebrafish embryos and larvae

Authors Sun Y, Zhang G, He Z, Wang Y, Cui J, Li Y

Received 11 November 2015

Accepted for publication 5 February 2016

Published 7 March 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 905—918

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S100350

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Bhavesh Kevadiya

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Yan Sun, Gong Zhang, Zizi He, Yajie Wang, Jianlin Cui, Yuhao Li

Department of Pathology, Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Neurovascular Regulation, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used for a variety of purposes in a wide range of commercially available products. Some CuO NPs probably end up in the aquatic systems, thus raising concerns about aqueous exposure toxicity, and the impact of CuO NPs on liver development and neuronal differentiation remains unclear. In this study, particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Zebrafish embryos were continuously exposed to CuO NPs from 4 hours postfertilization at concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, or 1 mg/L. The expression of gstp1 and cyp1a was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and superoxide dismutase 1 was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Liver development and retinal neurodifferentiation were analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization, hematoxylin–eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry, and a behavioral test was performed to track the movement of larvae. We show that exposure of CuO NPs at low doses has little effect on embryonic development. However, exposure to CuO NPs at concentrations of 12.5 mg/L or higher leads to abnormal phenotypes and induces an inflammatory response in a dose-dependent pattern. Moreover, exposure to CuO NPs at high doses results in an underdeveloped liver and a delay in retinal neurodifferentiation accompanied by reduced locomotor ability. Our data demonstrate that short-term exposure to CuO NPs at high doses shows hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticles, biotoxicity, liver, neuronal differentiation, zebrafish, oxidative stress, behavior

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