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Effects of acarbose and metformin on the inflammatory state in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: a one-year randomized clinical study

Authors Mo D, Liu S, Ma H, Tian H, Yu H, Zhang X, Tong N, Liao J, Ren Y

Received 11 March 2019

Accepted for publication 8 July 2019

Published 9 August 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 2769—2776


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos

Dan Mo,1 Songfang Liu,1 Hong Ma,1 Haoming Tian,1 Honglin Yu,2 Xiangxun Zhang,2 Nanwei Tong,2 Jiayu Liao,3,4 Yan Ren1

1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China; 2Laboratory of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Bioengineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; 4West China Hospital-California Multiomics Research Center, Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, National Health Commission of PRC, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the changes in inflammatory biomarkers between newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients under one-year acarbose treatments and those under metformin managements.
Methods: Seventy patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and 32 volunteers with normal glucose tolerance (normal controls, NCs) were enrolled. Seventy patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to two subgroups and treated with acarbose (n=34) or metformin (n=36) for 1 year. Blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and inflammatory biomarker levels (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and ferritin) were detected at 0, 6 and 12 months.
Results: After adjusting for sex, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI), higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG), standard meal test 1/2 hr and 2 hr glucose, TG, TC, LDL-C, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2 and ferritin levels were observed in T2DM group than in NCs (P<0.05). After 6 months of treatment, TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in both subgroups, and IL-6 and ferritin levels were significantly decreased after 12 months (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in the IL-6, TNF-α and ferritin levels were observed between the two subgroups. Moreover, significantly higher IL-6 and TNF-α levels were detected in the T2DM group than in NCs after 12 months of treatment (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM exhibited a marked chronic inflammatory state characterized by increased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and ferritin levels. After 1 year of treatment with acarbose or metformin, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and ferritin levels were significantly decreased compared with the baseline. The anti-inflammatory effects of acarbose and metformin were comparable and required a long-term treatment (1 year), but the characteristics were different. Further investigations are needed to determine whether this effect was independent of the hypoglycemic effects.

Keywords: newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, inflammatory biomarkers, acarbose, metformin

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