Effectiveness of pharmacist-led educational interventions on self-care activities and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Received 14 July 2018
Accepted for publication 5 October 2018
Published 21 November 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 2457—2474
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Allah Bukhsh,1,2 Xuan Ying Tan,1 Kok Gan Chan,3,4 Learn-Han Lee,1,2,5–8 Bey-Hing Goh,1,2,5–8 Tahir Mehmood Khan1,2
1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor 47500, Malaysia; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan; 3International Genome Centre, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China; 4Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Asian Centre for Evidence Synthesis in Population, Implementation and Clinical Outcomes (PICO), Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery Research Group, Microbiome and Bioresource Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia; 7Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia; 8Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic, Safety (Cohorts), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Mueang Phayao, Thailand
Background: Effectiveness of pharmacist-led educational interventions on self-care activities and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients is vague. The purpose of this review is to appraise the effect of pharmacist-led educational interventions on self-care activities and levels of glycated hemoglobin of T2DM patients.
Methods: Five electronic databases were searched from date of database inception to September 2017. Randomized clinical trials examining the effectiveness of pharmacist-led educational interventions, directed at T2DM patients only, were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. The protocol is available with PROSPERO (CRD42017078854).
Results: Eleven studies, involving n=1,544 T2DM patients, were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis demonstrated that pharmacist-led interventions had a significant effect on lowering of the levels of glycated hemoglobin (-0.66; 95% CI [-0.83, -0.50]; I2=58.3%; P=0.008), in comparison to usual care. Self-care activities were assessed by using Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities tool in eight studies. Overall meta-analysis of self-care activities for included studies demonstrated a significant effect of pharmacist-led interventions on improvement of self-monitoring of blood glucose (1.62; 95% CI [0.92, 2.32]; I2=70.5%; P=0.005), foot care (1.20; 95% CI [0.49, 1.90]; I2=95.0%; P<0.001), and overall diet (1.16; 95% CI [0.38, 1.93]; I2=64.2%; P=0.094).
Conclusion: The findings of this review demonstrate a significantly positive effect of pharmacist-led educational interventions on HbA1c levels and self-care practices among T2DM patients.
Keywords: self-care, pharmacist, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes, meta-analysis, HbA1c
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