Effective inhibition of colon cancer cell growth with MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) loaded 5-FU and PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor BEZ-235 through apoptotic pathways
Jiezhong Chen,1,2 Renfu Shao,3 Li Li,4 Zhi Ping Xu,4 Wenyi Gu4
1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 2Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 3GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, 4Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
Abstract: Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the third largest cause of cancer-related death. Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. However, its response rate is less than 60%, even in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The side effects of 5-FU also limit its application. Nanoparticles have been used to deliver 5-FU, to increase its effectiveness and reduce side effects. Another common approach for colon cancer treatment is targeted therapy against the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. A recently-invented inhibitor of this pathway, BEZ-235, has been tested in several clinical trials and has shown effectiveness and low side effects. Thus, it is a very promising drug for colon cancer treatment. The combination of these two drugs, especially nanoparticle-packed 5-FU and BEZ-235, has not been studied. In the present study, we demonstrated that nanoparticles of layered double hydroxide (LDH) loaded with 5-FU were more effective than a free drug at inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, and that a combination treatment with BEZ-235 further increased the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to the treatment of LDH-packed 5-FU (LDH-5-FU). BEZ-235 alone can decrease colon cancer HCT-116 cell viability to 46% of the control, and the addition of LDH-5-FU produced a greater effect, reducing cell survival to 8% of the control. Our data indicate that the combination therapy of nanodelivered 5-FU with a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, BEZ-235, may promise a more effective approach for colon cancer treatment.
Keywords: layered double hydroxide (LDH), BEZ-235, 5-FU, colon cancer HCT-116 cells, cell death, apoptosis, PI3K/Akt/mTOR
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