Effect of quercetin-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on diabetes-induced learning and memory impairment in rats
Received 27 June 2018
Accepted for publication 18 August 2018
Published 11 October 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 6311—6324
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Alexander Kharlamov
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Shiva Ebrahimpour,1 Abolghasem Esmaeili,1 Siamak Beheshti2
1Cell, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran; 2Division of Animal Sciences, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Background: Diabetes mellitus plays a causative role in cognitive decline. Newly, neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been widely investigated in neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin (QC) is a phyto-derived bioactive flavone with numerous beneficial activities. However, its limited permeability to cross the blood–brain barrier, low oral bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility, and rapid gastrointestinal digestion lead to the administration of high dose of QC in clinical application.
Materials and methods: In order to overcome these limitations, we conjugated QC with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (QCSPIONs) and supplemented streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with it to improve diabetes-related memory impairment. In this regard, 40 rats were distributed into five groups with eight animals: control, diabetes, and diabetes treated with SPIONs, QC, and QCSPIONs. All treatments (at the dose of 25 mg/kg) were dissolved in deionized water and gavaged for 35 consecutive days.
Results: At the end of the study, QCSPIONs possessed significantly better efficacy than free QC on the improvement of memory performance. In the Morris water maze test, QCSPIONs compared to free QC reduced much better the escape latency over training trials (P<0.01) and increased the time spent in the target quadrant in probe trial (P<0.001). In the passive avoidance test, it increased step-through latency (P<0.05) and reduced the time spent in the dark compartment (P<0.01). In addition, both free QC and QCSPIONs were able to prevent the changes in body weight and decrease blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Overall, according to these results, we conclude that QC in the conjugated state with lower dose offers significantly higher potency in ameliorating diabetes-related memory impairment. Thus, this study offers an effective combined therapy for improving learning and memory.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cognitive decline, conjugated quercetin, nanoparticles
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