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Effect of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in elderly patients with hypercapnic acute-on-chronic respiratory failure and a do-not-intubate order

Authors Scarpazza P, Incorvaia C, di Franco G, Raschi S, Usai P, Bernareggi M, Bonacina C, Melacini C, Vanni S, Bencini S, Pravettoni C, Di Cara G, Yacoub M-R, Riario-Sforza GG, Guffanti E, Casali W

Published 5 December 2008 Volume 2008:3(4) Pages 797—801


Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Paolo Scarpazza1, Cristoforo Incorvaia2, Giuseppe di Franco1, Stefania Raschi1, Pierfranco Usai1, Monica Bernareggi1, Cristiano Bonacina1, Chiara Melacini1, Silvia Vanni1, Serena Bencini1, Chiara Pravettoni2, Giuseppe Di Cara3, Mona-Rita Yacoub4, Gian Galeazzo Riario-Sforza2, Enrico Guffanti5, Walter Casali1

1Divisione di Broncopneumotisiologia, Ospedale Civile, Vimercate, Italy; 2Pulmonary rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan, Italy; 3University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 4Allergy and Immunology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Pulmonary rehabilitation, INRCA, Casatenovo, Italy

Abstract: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is effective in the treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). It proved to reduce the need of endotracheal intubation (ETI), the incidence of ETI-associated pneumonia, and mortality compared to nonventilated patients. A particular aspect concerns the outcome of NIMV in patients referring to an emergency room (ER) for ARF, and with a do-not-intubate (DNI) status due to advanced age or critical conditions. The aim of our study is to assess the outcome of NIMV in a group of elderly patients with acute hypercapnic ARF who had a DNI status. An overall number of 62 subjects (30 males, 32 females, mean age 81 ± 4.8 years, range 79–91 years) referred to our semi-intensive respiratory department were enrolled in the study. The underlying diseases were severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 50/62 subjects, restrictive thoracic disorders in 7/62 subjects, and multiorgan failure in 5/62 subjects. Fifty-four/62 patients were successfully treated with NIMV while 2/62 did not respond to NIMV and were therefore submitted to ETI (one survived). Among NIMV-treated patients, death occurred in 6 patients after a mean of 9.9 days; the overall rate of NIMV failure was 12.9%. Negative prognostic factors for NIMV response proved to be: an older age, a low Glasgow Coma Score, a high APACHE score at admission, a high PaCO2 after 12 hours and a low pH both after 1 and 12 hours of NIMV. We conclude that elderly patients with acute hypercapnic ARF with a DNI status can be successfully treated by NIMV.

Keywords: acute respiratory failure, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation, do-not-intubate, COPD, oxygen therapy

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