Effect of nanoparticles binding ß-amyloid peptide on nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells and macrophages
Received 14 November 2012
Accepted for publication 11 January 2013
Published 15 April 2013 Volume 2013:8(1) Pages 1335—1347
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 5
Antonina Orlando,1 Francesca Re,1 Silvia Sesana,1 Ilaria Rivolta,1 Alice Panariti,1 Davide Brambilla,2 Julien Nicolas,2 Patrick Couvreur,2 Karine Andrieux,2 Massimo Masserini,1 Emanuela Cazzaniga1
1Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Institut Galien Paris Sud, University Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France
Background: As part of a project designing nanoparticles for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, we have synthesized and characterized a small library of nanoparticles binding with high affinity to the β-amyloid peptide and showing features of biocompatibility in vitro, which are important properties for administration in vivo. In this study, we focused on biocompatibility issues, evaluating production of nitric oxide by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and macrophages, used as models of cells which would be exposed to nanoparticles after systemic administration.
Methods: The nanoparticles tested were liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin, and PEGylated poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (PEG-PACA). We measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method as well as phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and intracellular free calcium, which are biochemically related to nitric oxide production. MTT viability tests and caspase-3 detection were also undertaken.
Results: Exposure to liposomes did not affect the viability of endothelial cells at any concentration tested. Increased production of nitric oxide was detected only with liposomes carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin at the highest concentration (120 µg/mL), together with increased synthase phosphorylation and intracellular calcium levels. Macrophages exposed to liposomes showed a slightly dose-dependent decrease in viability, with no increase in production of nitric oxide. Exposure to solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid decreased viability in both cell lines, starting at the lowest dose (10 µg/mL), with increased production of nitric oxide detected only at the highest dose (1500 µg/mL). Exposure to PEG-PACA affected cell viability and production of nitric oxide in both cell lines, but only at the highest concentration (640 µg/mL).
Conclusion: Liposomal and PEG-PACA nanoparticles have a limited effect on vascular homeostasis and inflammatory response, rendering them potentially suitable for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, they highlight the importance of testing such nanoparticles for production of nitric oxide in vitro in order to identify a therapeutic dose range suitable for use in vivo.
Keywords: nanoparticles, nitric oxide, endothelial cells, macrophages, Alzheimer’s disease
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