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Effect of ketorolac in intra-articular injection analgesia for postoperative pain in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy: a pilot-controlled clinical study

Authors Xu J, Qu Y, Li H, Jiang T, Zheng C, Wang B, Shen P

Received 28 June 2018

Accepted for publication 23 August 2018

Published 17 January 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 417—422

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S178413

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Ueberall


Jianda Xu,1,* Yuxing Qu,1 Huan Li,2 Tao Jiang,1,* Chong Zheng,1 Bin Wang,1 Pengfei Shen1

1Department of Orthopaedics, Changzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China; 2Department of Arthroplasty, The First People’s Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: To date, a regional approach using local anesthetics has become a popular analgesic method for arthroscopy. The optimal postoperative analgesia method for shoulder arthroscopy is still debated.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect and safety of using ketorolac in combination with a multimodal drug regime (ropivacaine, morphine, and triamcinolone acetonide) after shoulder arthroscopy.
Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in a pilot study and patients were randomized into an experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The following parameters were used to evaluate pain relief levels postoperatively: the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, morphine consumption, and initial analgesic desired time. Complications were also recorded.
Results: Except for 1 hour postoperatively, patients in the experimental group experienced lower VAS scores during the first 48 hours postoperatively (P<0.05). The VAS score in both groups increased after 3 hours postoperatively and peaked at 12 hours postoperatively (2.54±0.86 vs 3.25±1.18). The VAS scores on movement in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group at 24 or 48 hours postoperatively (P=0.004, 0.001). A total of 18 (60.0%) patients in the experimental group required no additional analgesia, compared with 10 (33.3 %) in the control group (P=0.035). The mean rescue analgesia was 11.40±5.56 mg in the experiment group, while 16.57±8.48 mg in the control group (P=0.016). The initial analgesic desired time was delayed significantly in the experimental group (16.50±14.57 hours vs 8.9±6.32 hours, P=0.000).
Conclusion: Adding ketorolac to intra-articular injection analgesia is a safe and effective method to improve pain relief after shoulder arthroscopy, and further prospective controlled trials are necessary to allow definite treatment recommendations.

Keywords: ketorolac, intra-articular injection analgesia, postoperative pain, shoulder arthroscopy

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